- Annarita Addessi, Le "influenze stilistiche" di Claude Debussy su Manuel de Falla (p. 91). Abstract.
- Mariateresa Dellaborra, La musica sacra del XVIII secolo in area milanese. Aspetti e stili (p. 67). Abstract.
- Claudio Gallico, Oda è canto. Livelli musicali di Umanesimo (p. 207). Abstract.
- Don Harrán, Domenico Galli e gli 'eroici' esordi della musica per violoncello solo (p. 231). Abstract.
- Andrea Luppi, La cuna del Redentore a Wolfenbüttel (1685) e i tentativi di conciliazione religiosa in Germania (p. 47). Abstract.
- Alessandra Montali, Riflessione concettuale e percorso letterario in Giacinto Scelsi (p. 347). Abstract.
- Nicola Verzina, Tecnica della mutazione e tecnica seriale in Vier Briefe (1953) di Bruno Maderna (p. 309). Abstract.
- Agostino Ziino – Francesco Zimei, Quattro frammenti inediti del disperso laudario di Pacino di Bonaguida (p. 3). Abstract.
- Warren Kirkendale, La storia, le scienze sociali e il matrimonio dei Medici nel 1589 (p. 389).
- Giorgio Pugliaro, Continuo e discreto. La cultura della musica in Italia nel primo dopoguerra (p. 147).
- (Maria Teresa Arfini) «A salti e lanci». Il dibattito sul Volkslied nell'epoca dello Sturm und Drang, a cura di Clelia Parvopassu e Alberto Rizzuti, Alessandra, Edizioni dell'Orso, 1997 (p. 163)
- (Luca Aversano) Musica strumentale dell'Ottocento italiano, a cura di Guido Salvetti, Lucca, LIM, 1997 (Quaderni del Corso di Musicologia del Conservatorio 'G. Verdi' di Milano, 3-1995) (p. 175)
- (Luca Aversano) Jacopo Ferretti e la cultura del suo tempo. Atti del convegno di studi, Roma, 28-29 novembre 1996, a cura di Annalisa Bini e Franco Onorati, Roma-Milano, Accademia di Santa Cecilia - Skira editore, 1999 («L'Arte armonica». Serie III. Studi e testi, 5) (p. 433)
- (Virgilio Bernardoni) Giacomo Puccini. L'uomo, il musicista, il panorama europeo, Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi su Giacomo Puccini nel 70° anniversario della morte (Lucca, 25-29 novembre 1994), a cura di Gabriella Biagi Ravenni e Carolyn Gianturco, Lucca, LIM, 1997 (Studi Musicali Toscani, 4) (p. 182)
- (Paola Besutti) Victor Crowther, The Oratorio in Bologna (1650-1730), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999 (p. 419).
- (Giuseppe Buzzanca) Melodic Similarity. Concepts, Procedures, and Applications, a cura di W. B. Hewlett ed E. Selfridge-Field, Cambridge (Mass.), MIT, 1999 (Computing in Musicology, XI) (450)
- (Giuseppe Calliari) Ignazio Macchiarella, Introduzione al canto di tradizione orale nel --Trentino, Trento, Editrice Università degli Studi di Trento -Dipartimento di Scienze Filologiche e Storiche, 1999 (Labirinti 42-Saggi) (p. 448)
- (Marco Capra) Giampiero Tintori -Maria Maddalena Schito, Il Regio Ducal Teatro di Milano (1717-1778). Cronologia delle opere e dei balli con 10 indici, Cuneo, Bettola & Locatel1i Editori, 1998; Paologiovanni Maione - Francesca Seller, Teatro di San Carlo di Napoli. Cronologia degli spettacoli (1851-1900), vol. III, Napoli, Avagliano Editore, 1999 (Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici: "Ricerche musicali", 5) (p. 421)
- (Marco Capra) Le prime rappresentazioni delle opere di Donizetti nella stampa coeva, a cura di Annalisa Bini e Jeremy Commons, Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia -Skira, Roma -Milano, 1997 "l'Arte Armonica", Serie m, Studi e testi, 3) (p. 437)
- (Giovanni Carli Ballola) Paolo Gallarati, L'Europa del melodramma. Da Calzabigi a Rossini, Alessandria, Edizioni dell'Orso, 2000 (Collana del Corso di Laurea in Discipline Artistiche, Musicali e dello Spettacolo, Sezione Musica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Facoltà di Scienze della Formazione) (p. 427)
- (Rossana Dalmonte) Ivano Cavallini, Il direttore d'orchestra. Genesi e storia di un'arte, Venezia, Marsilio, 1998 (p. 173)
- (Marco Della Sciucca - Marco Giuliani), Trent'anni di ricerche musicologiche. Studi in onore di F. Alberto Gallo, a cura di Patrizia Dalla Vecchia e Donatella Restani, Roma, Torre d'Orfeo, 1996 (p. 395)
- (Agostino di Scipio) Joel Chadabe, Electric Sound. The Past and Promises of Electronic Music, Upper Saddle River (New Jersey), Prentice Hall, 1997 (p. 188)
- (Marco Emanuele) Marco Grondona, La perfetta illusione, Lucca, Akademos & LIM, 1996; Marco Grondona, Otello una tragedia napoletana. Commento a Rossini, Lucca, LIM, 1997 (Musica rappresentata, 1) (p. 166)
- (Enrico Fubini) Giovanni Piana, Teoria del sogno e dramma musicale. La metafisica della musica di Schopenauer, Milano, Guerrini e Associati, 1997 (p. 178)
- (Enrico Fubini) Jean Jacques Nattiez, Wagner androgino. Saggio sull'interpretazione, Torino, Einaudi, 1997 (p. 440)
- (Enrico Fubini) Giovanni Guanti, Estetica musicale. La storia e le fonti, Milano, La Nuova Italia, 1999 (Storia di idee, 7) (p. 445)
- (Pier Giuseppe Gillio) Johann Adolf Hasse e Giammaria Ortes, Lettere (1760-1783), edizione e commento a cura di Livia Pancino, Turnhout, Brepols, 1998 (Speculum Musicae, IV) (p. 160)
- (Jean-Eudes Girot) Annie Coeurdevey, Bibliographie des oeuvres poétiques de Clément Marot mises en musique dans les recueils profanes du XVIe siècle, Paris, Champion, 1997 (p. 155)
- (Andrea Luppi) Harry White, The Keeper's Recital: Music and Cultural History in Ireland, 1770-1970, Cork, Cork University Press, 1998 (Critical Conditions: Field Day Essay and Monographs, 6) (p. 192)
- (Marco Mangani) Concetta Assenza, La canzonetta dal 1570 al 1615, Lucca, LIM, 1997 (p. 408)
- (Raffaele Mellace) Lorenzo Da Ponte, Libretti viennesi, a cura di Lorenzo della Chà, Milano, Fondazione Pietro Bembo - Ugo Guanda Editore, 1999 (Biblioteca di scrittori italiani), 2 voll.; Gian Giacomo Stiffoni, Non son cattivo comico. Caratteri di 'riforma' nei drammi giocosi di Da Ponte per Vienna, Torino, De Sono - Paravia, 1998 (p. 430)
- (Gian Paolo Minardi) Vincenzo Borghetti - Riccardo Pecci, Il bacio della Sfinge. D'Annunzio, Pizzetti e Fedra, Torino, EDT, 1998 (p. 443)
- (Stefano Patuzzi) Don Harràn, Salamone Rossi. Jewish musician in late Renaissance Mantua, Oxford-New York, Oxford University Press, 1999 (p. 415)
- (Pietro Prosser) Giovanni Lorenzo Baldano, Libro per scriver l'intavolatura per suonare sopra le sordelline (Savona 1600), Savona, Editrice Liguria, 1995 (p. 156)
- (Silvia Scozzi) Timothy J. McGee, The Sound of Medieval Song: Ornamentation and Vocal Style According to the Treatise, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1998 (p. 405)
- (Leopold Silke) Claudio Monteverdi. Studi e prospettive, a cura di P. Besutti, T. M. Gialdroni, R. Baroncini, Firenze, Olschki, 1998 (p. 411)
- (Claudio Toscani) Alessandro Roccatagliati, Felice Romani librettista, Lucca, LIM, 1996 (Quaderni di Musica/Realtà, 37) (p. 170)
- (Lucio Tufano) Pietro Metastasio: il teatro e il contesto, a cura di Marta Columbro e Paologiovanni Maione, Napoli, Altrastampa, 2000 (p. 423)
- (Daniel Brandenburg) Verdi 2001. Vita e opere narrate ai giovani, a cura di Marcello Conati, Parma, Parma Lirica, 1999, (p. 462)
- (M. Capra) Roberto Giuliani, Salvatore Sciarrino: catalogo delle opere; musiche e scritti; discografia, nastrografia, videografia; bibliografia, Milano, Ricordi, 1999, (p. 203)
- (Marco Capra) Rossella Fabbri, Cesare Ciardi. Un flautista toscano alla corte dello zar, prefazione di Marcello de Angelis, Lucca, Libreria Musicale Italiana, 1999, (p. 464)
- (Marcello Conati) Antonio Cagnoni e il suo tempo. Vita e opere di un compositore all'epoca di Giuseppe Verdi, a cura di Mariateresa Dellaborra, Milano, Rugginenti Editore, 1997, (p. 461)
- (Luca Della Libera) Il Codice 59 dell'Archivio Musicale della Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano autografo di Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Edizione anastatica a cura di Giancarlo Rostirolla. Palestrina, Fondazione Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, 1996, (p. 457)
- (A. Di Scipio) The Music of Morton Feldmann, a cura di Thomas De Lio, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1996, (p. 202)
- (Anna Ficarella) Elisabetta Fava, Carl Loewe. Un percorso creativo attraverso ballate e Lieder, Torino, De Sono - Paravia, 1997, (p. 460)
- (P. Gargiulo) Medioevo Musicale. Bollettino bibliografico della musica medievale I, Firenze, Sismel-Edizioni del Galluzzo, 1998, (p. 199)
- (Piero Gargiulo) Giovan Battista Sammartini, Sonate per organo o cembalo, edizione critica a cura di Mariateresa Dellaborra, Milano, Edizioni Musicali La Bottega Discantica, 1999, (p. 458)
- (G. Gialdroni) La danza italiana tra Cinque e Seicento. Studi per Fabrizio Caroso da Sermoneta, a cura di Piero Gargiulo, Roma, Bardi Editore, 1997, (p. 200)
- (Rosy Moffa) Tradizione popolare e linguaggio colto nell'Ottocento e Novecento musicale piemontese, a cura di Maurizio Benedetti e Maria Titli, Torino, Centro Studi Piemontesi, 1999, (p. 465)
- (F. Seller) Carla Ortolani e Francesco Zimei, Devozione e libertà. Itinerari musicali nell'Abruzzo giacobino e sanfedista (1796-1806), Colledara (Teramo), Andromeda, 1999, (p. 202)
- (Francesco Zimei) Enrico Radesca, I quattro libri di Canzonette, Madrigali e Arie alla romana, a cura di Marco Giuliani, prefazione di Agostino Ziino, Lucca, LIM - Conservatorio di musica 'Umberto Giordano' di Foggia, 2000, (p. 457)
Agostino Ziino - Francesco Zimei
Quattro frammenti inediti del disperso laudario di Pacino da Bonaguida
Four fragments of the great musical laudario illuminated by Pacino di Bonaguida and his assistants in the early years of the XIV century have been discovered due to research carried out in several public and private art collections. The works of this distinguished painter, who worked in Florence between 1303 and 1330 and who is considered the leader of the so-called school of miniaturists, turned out to be the only possible common denominator of the collection, which was unfortunately broken up during the 19th century and sold, piece by piece, because of its intrinsic value.
The recognition of this material made possible by an exhibition held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York at the end of 1994 and the beginning of 1995, following attributions by art historians.
The first fragment from the Heinz Kisters collection, on the verso – from which the part set to music has been cut away – is a the scene of the Adoration of the Magi. The recto offers the text of the chorus and three verses of the pseudo-Iacoponic lauda Tutor dicendo.
The second fragment, preserved in the Fitzwilliam Museum of Cambridge (Marlay Cutting It. 83), also consists of a large central miniature of rectangular shape cut out of its original setting. The miniature (verso) shows the Martyrdom of Saints Peter and Paul. It is possible on the recto to read, at least in part, the text of the lauda Sancto Iovanni Baptista exempro della gente, also to be found in BR 18, BR 19, Fior and Ars.
The third fragment, previously part of the Lehman Collection of New York, contains on the recto the last two lines, set to music, of the first verse of the Sancto Bernardo amoroso lauda together with three more verses hitherto unknown. The beautifully miniatured verso contains the text and the music of the four lines of the refrain of the Appostolo beato lauda, whose music –in D – is written a tone higher than the BR 18 version, which has until now been considered unique.
The fourth and last of the miniatured fragments in question, preserved in the Free Library of Philadelphia (J.F. Lewis Collection, M. 25:8), bears on its recto – which is still glued to a protective piece of cardboard and can only be read by means of an ultraviolet photograph – the explicit of the Appostolo beato lauda examined above. Of its verso only the picture has been spared, a miniature which has until now been identified by art historians as representing Saint John at Patmo.
Following the discovery of these sources – which greatly enriches our knowledge of this important pacinian laudario – an attempt has been made for the first time to reconstruct the order in which these fragments appeared in the codex.
La cuna del Redentore a Wolfenbüttel (1685) e i tentativi di conciliazione religiosa in Germania
During the second half of the seventeenth century at the Palazzo Apostolico Vaticano in Rome, it became customary on Christmas Eve to perform music, generally in the form of cantatas, concertos, or sacred compositions. This repertoire is imbued with the Arcadian sensibility, as the choice of the Nativity theme makes clear, and has an explicitly didactic aim: to edify the listeners through reference to Holy Scripture and to the basic principles of Christianity, both ethical and religious, quite often accompanied by a desire to celebrate the greatness of the Pope himself.
One of these compositions, Li pastori tributarii alla cuna del Redentore, set to music by Giuseppe Pacieri, had a strange fate: in 1685, two years after its performance in Rome, with the new title "Musica alla vigilia del S.to Natale", it was performed in the Ducal Chapel in Wolfenbüttel. Thus the praises of Innocent XI, placed at the end of Pietro Giubilei's text (the libretto was printed for the occasion) were sung at a Lutheran court.
An exceptional witness to and commentator on the event was the philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, whose interest in musical events and constant commitment to the cause of religious reconciliation between the different Christian churches in Germany are well known. It can be surmised that the 1685 performance was not at all accidental, being rather a sign of the desire for political renewal (if not a long-term plan) on the part of Prince Anton Ulrich of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, who had been appointed Regent to the Duchy that very year. An enquiry into the context of theological disputes concerning the reconciliation between the various churches on the one hand, and the alliances between the German principalities on the other, helps to make clear the singular importance of this episode. The performance of La Cuna del Redentore represents, therefore, an extraordinary event in the history of music at German Protestant courts, just as it does for the court of Wolfenbüttel itself, where the Prince's passion for opera was later to encourage other types of performances, thus making of his Duchy one of the centres most obviously influenced both by Italian and French art.
La musica sacra del XVIII secolo in area milanese. Aspetti e stili.
The principal aim of this study is the analysis of the complex Milanese reality in relation to other contemporary musical-liturgical contexts and to the situation described in the Encyclical Annus qui issued by Pope Benedict XIV in 1749.
After examining the Encyclical in its main points concerning performance practice, the article goes on to outline the situation in the diocese of Milan, governed from 1743 to 1783 by Cardinal Giuseppe Pozzobonelli, a learned Milanese nobleman who was a careful and efficient church administrator in a difficult historical period.
From contemporary sources (Ragguagli di vari paesi, Almanacchi sacri, and the travel journal of Dr. Burney), and in particular the compositions of musicians active in Milan at the time, the article examines the type of music written for the Duomo and other churches both inside and outside the city. It is clear from this analysis that throughout the eighteenth century the former maintained a conservative position faithful to the early traditions, imposing on their musicians absolute adherence to the rules; the latter, particularly parishes under secular priests, acted instead with greater freedom, allowing musical instruments to accompany religious services, withaut regard for the Pope's orders.
In this context are examined the works of Giovan Battista Sammartini, Johann Christian Bach, Carlo Monza and in particular Giovanni Andrea Fioroni, who was Maestro di Cappella in the Chiesa Metropolitana from 1747 to 1778. The catalogue of Fioroni's music clearly shows his twofold tendency towards modernism and conservatism, especially with the recent discovery of a significant number of his compositions in the Fondo musicale dell'Archivio Plebano in Vimercate. These contribute a revaluation of Fioroni, revealing his significance in Milan at the time, one completely at ease when following either the strict traditional rules of counterpoint or when composing in a more modern style.
L'ultimo Homenaje: intertestualità e influenze stilistiche fra Claude Debussy e Manuel de Falla.
This article presents and analyses problems of different types: the first is historical: Claude Debussy's stylistic influence on Manuel de Falla; the second is theoretical: defining the concept of stylistic influence; and the last is methodological: how to analyse, given two or more related works, the influence of one on the other.
The article is divided into two parts: the first part presents the theoretical and methodological hypotheses which will be followed, and which result from the elaboration of certain intertextual theories (R. Barthes) and from the most recent studies on musical style (K. Agawu. M. Baroni, M. Imberty); the second part, the result of documentary research carried out in the Manuel de Falla Archive at Granada, applies the above-mentioned hypotheses to a study of the interpretation by Falla and his Spanish contemporaries of the Debussy 'phenomenon', supplying documentary evidence of the role he played in the creation of Falla's style.
The music of Manuel de Falla, full of 'quotations' but not sufficiently analysed from this point of view, is particularly suited to an intertextual study, thereby making it possible to underline his Foucaultian modernity.
Tecnica della mutazione e tecnica seriale in Vier Briefe (1953) di Bruno Maderna
From about 1950 Maderna was interested in seeking serial generative possibilities with the intent of obtaining, in a coherent and organic way, ample musical material which would later be structured in the piece. Thus the Venetian composer created a compositional process, which he himself defined as 'mutation technique' and which he used together with the serial technique. The compositions where he used this process, though not always exactly in the same way, are Improvvisazione n. 1 (1951-52), Studi per il 'Llanto' di F. G. Lorca (1950-52), Improvvisazione n. 2 (1953), Vier Briefe (1953), Flötenkonzert (1954), Serenata n. 2 (1954), Composizione in tre tempi (1954), Quartetto in due tempi (1955), Concerto per pianoforte (1958).
In Vier Briefe the process consists in the proliferation of ample material starting from a series of a few notes (a fragment of the partisan song, Fischia il vento) achieved by moving from one magic square to the next, through the numbers of a matrix which determine the number of movements that every pitch of the series must perform.
Vier Briefe also reveal Maderna's ethical and civil commitment at the beginning of the fifties. The choice of its texts shows that he belonged to a social and ethical group which was very important for his poetics and for the particular historical moment. Vier Briefe should be considered in the context of Italy's politically committed culture of the fifties alongside other art forms, such as literature, drama and neorealistic cinema. Vier Briefe shares with Nono's contemporary production - Epitaph auf G. Lorca of 1952-53 and Canto sospeso of 1956 - the values of antifascism, and the denunciation of violence and oppression, following the path shown to the two Venetian composers by Dallapiccola with Canti di prigionia and Il Prigioniero. The work of Maderna is in turn a signpost to Nono for Canto sospeso, which uses texts drawn from the letters of members of the European Resistance movement who had been sentenced to death. Maderna's human, ethical and political commitment is not only evident in his choice of texts (Lettera del condannato della Resistenza, Kommerzialbrief, Gramsci-Lettera dal carcere), but is also expressed through the use of musical material drawn from the same context: the partisan song. The processes applied to this material are, however, many and such as to render it unrecognizable. The material obtained in this way is then restored, through the texts used, to its original semantic context, thus acquiring an even greater meaning and force of expression.
Domenico Galli e gli eroici esordi della musica per violoncello solo non accompagnato
Bach's suites for solo violoncello have been and will ever remain one of the wonders of Western musical art. They stand out the more vividly in their solitude: Bach is usually portrayed as having had no predecessors in this enterprise. Christoph Wolff, for example, in his authoritative entry on the composer in The New Grove Dictionary, wrote that «there are no known works for solo cello before Bach».
The find of a set of twelve sonatas for solo cello by a relatively unknown Italian composer from the end of the seventeenth century and some thirty years before Bach's opus will not alter the magnitude of the later composer's achievement. Galli's works are too modest to offer musical competition. Yet they represent an extraordinary find in the sense that they force a reappraisal of the beginnings of solo music for unaccompanied cello and, as a result, place Bach's and other composers' works for the instrument in an entirely new perspective.
Domenico Galli turns out to be a fascinating figure not only because of his early sonatas (which are actually suites, for they were written as chamber sonatas), but also because of his many talents: in addition to composing and, presumably, performing music, he was an instrument builder, a wood sculptor, a draftsman, a scribe and a calligrapher. In the introduction to his music collection, prepared as an elegant manuscript for presentation to his patron, Galli ushers us into the court circle of Francesco II d'Este of Modena, among the outstanding benefactors of artists and musicians in the mid-Baroque. Francesco is related, in the same introduction, to major events and figures on the European scene, from the political misfortunes of James II in England to the glories of the Roi Soleil Louis XIV in France. Galli harps on the theme of Hercules as an 'invincible' hero in reference to the heroes of his own time, telling of his attempt to give expression to the theme in his works for unaccompanied cello and in the magnificent instrument he built for their performance. The cello, commissioned by Francesco II, was decorated with rich carvings depicting the persons and their exploits discussed in the introduction, with Hercules as the main hero.
The study divides into five parts: the first deals with Galli the man and his works (music, instruments, drawings, wood carvings); the second, with early composers of instrumental music in Bologna and Modena, with particular attention to music for violoncello; the third, with the historical events to which Galli alludes and their political and mythological ramifications; the fourth, with the formal and stylistic aspects of Galli's works for solo cello; and the last, with Galli's works in relation to those of other composers, including Corelli (his solo violin sonatas) and Bach (his cello suites).
Riflessione concettuale e percorso letterario in Giacinto Scelsi
The theoretical and literary production of Giacinto Scelsi can be divided into three periods: the conceptual reflection of Sens de la Musique and the historical reflection of Evolution du Rythme and Evolution de l'Harmonie, in the forties; the definition of his human and artistic identity and the approach to spirituality of Son et Musique and Art et Connaissance, and of the three collections of poems, Le poids net, L'archipel nocturne, La conscience aigüe, in the fifties; and, finally the hermetic stage of the production of the eighties, Il sogno 101, Cercles, Octologo.
The first period is characterized by Scelsi's desire to define his artistic identity in relation to the contemporary musical panorama. His reflections concern both the proposition of a method of analysis - based on the theory of fundamental elements, that is the scrutiny of the rapport between the elements of music and the categories of images which the composer casts on the sound material - and its application to the study of the development of music between the end of the nineteenth and the first thirty years of the twentieth century. Thus the rhythmic and psychic elements come into the foreground, superseding the nineteenth century predominance of the intellect and the emotions.
The rhythmic element, inherent in music both through pulsation and through temporal perception, is examined by Scelsi as far as its deptg is concerned. This will be a fundamental appropriation for the development of Scelsi's musical language along the path of intrasonic research. The emancipation of this element is attributed to Liszt, Debussy, Stravinskij, to jazz and to the futurist experimentation. The psychic element, which is expressed through harmony (as Klang), is the projection in music of the deepest parts of conscience; it emerges in the work of Wagner, Debussy, Richard Strauss and especially Skrjabin. In this first stage Scelsi emerges as one who had great knowledge of the musical and cultural tendencies of his time and was seeking to establish a system of music criticism based on new categories of analysis.
In the second stage Scelsi's poetics are defined, and are associated principally with the idea of Art as a way to ascesis. It is possible, however, to identify correspondences with writers and artistic circles with which he came into contact in Paris: from the avant-garde movements of the beginning of the century (dadaists, surrealists, Cocteau), Steiner's theories, yoga and its theosophic reworking, the poets and friends Jouve and Michaux, to the philosopher Jankélévitch.
The paradigm of expressive essentiality, already present in the three collections of poems, is carried to its extreme consequences in the works of his maturity. The key to the understanding of his work may be identified in the recovery of intuitive knowledge, advocated by Scelsi himself as the only path to symbolism and metaphysical representation. His technique of composition, based on improvisation, demonstrates the use of this kind of intuitive knowledge and his desire to free himself from any kind of conditioning or rational intent. This is what Scelsi taught his pupils and the performers with whom he worked.
Oda è canto. Livelli musicali di Umanesimo
Inhospitas per alpes was composed by Michele Pesenti and published by Ottaviano Petrucci in 1504. The text is in good humanistic Latin. Perhaps the work of Antonio Tebaldeo, it uses the late-Renaissance Italian metre of the oda, a form intended to be set to music. It displays a tragic expressiveness, almost 'disperata'. The uniqueness of this composition, as careful analysis of the music shows, leads to further speculation and context-observation: the text tradition, the zoological quotations, the study of emblems, the art of rhetoric, the performance practice and reception. The result is a possible reconsideration of the history of music between the end of the XVth and the beginning of the XVIth centuries, with special reference to the much debated 'language question'. The author is aware of the great cultural domain to which this enquiry relates; at this point he only indicates its general terms, with the intention of returning to the issue.