- Marco Gozzi, Le fonti liturgiche quattrocentesche con notazione della Biblioteca comunale di Trento. Abstract.
- Ausilia Magaudda - Danilo Costantini, Un periodico a stampa di antico regime: la «Gazzetta di Milano». II parte: Spoglio delle notizie musicali per gli anni 1642-1685. Abstract.
- Luisa Cosi, Settecento musicale inedito tra Napoli e Terra d'Otranto: professioni e società di musica attraverso nuove fonti d'archivio. Abstract.
- Licia Sirch, La stanza della memoria. L'archivio della Società filarmonica di Cremona. Abstract.
- Tiziana Grande, Contributo alla storia della Biblioteca del Conservatorio di Napoli: gli anni 1889-1935. Abstract.
- Alessia Ferraresi, Alberto Franchetti: una biografia dalle lettere. Abstract.
- Renato Meucci, Gli strumenti musicali nell'Italia meridionale nei secoli XVI-XIX. Abstract.
- Fiamma Nicolodi - Maria Adelaide Bacherini - Andrea Chegai, Per un censimento della letteratura musicale a stampa nelle biblioteche toscane (secoli XV-XIX). Abstract.
- Rassegna bibliografica: 1996-97, a cura di Carmela Bongiovanni, con la collaborazione di Sonia Teramo.
The Trentino abounds in musical manuscripts and fragments of plainsong of the fifteenth century which are of considerable importance and which have been up to now neglected by scholars and researchers. The importance of these musical and liturgical documents is increased by the fact that, in most cases, these books were used in the same geographical area, and at the same period of compilation, as the celebrated musical Trento codex of fifteenth-century polyphony. The largest collection of manuscripts of this type is to be found in the Municipal Library of Trento (BCT) and consists of the following codices:
- BCT, ms. 1588: Vesperae et Missae sanctorum (Antiphoner-Gradual);
- BCT, ms. 1617: Gradual-Vesperale of 1492, from Prazöll (Bolzano);
- BCT, ms. 1787: with the lives and Offices of Saints Emmerano and Wolfgang;
- BCT,.ms. W 1795: Historiae rhythmicae of Saints Stanislas, Adalbert and Hedwig;
- BCT, ms. 1947/1: Gradual (25-28 December)-Antiphoner;
- BCT, ms. 1826: Franciscan Antiphoner de sanctis.
Ausilia Magaudda - Danilo Costantini
The paper is based on a selection of information regarding musical events in the State of Milan, drawn from the «Gazzetta di Milano», for the years 1642-1680. The introductory essay evidences the more important, or unknown, news items, for instance among others: music theatre performances; masses, vespers, funeral offices; Te Deums of thanksgiving for the nomination of cardinals or for military victories; performances in honour of saints with "musica isquisita"; concerts in churches on the occasion of beatifications or canonizations; dances in aristocratic palaces; academies with "sinfonie di suoni e canti"; music performances in colleges and monasteries, etc. In addition, particular attention is given to the fundamental role played by the Spanish governors and the nobility.
Appendix A includes 559 items of musical information; Appendix B contains the chronology of theatrical performances with music in Milan (1649-1699) drawn from the "Gazzetta di Milano". There is also an analytical index.
The paper gives the results of an exhaustive work of research into notarial records and Catasti onciari which covered organ-builders, guitar-makers, choirmasters, singers, music teachers and players of all kinds of instrument who were active in south Apulia during the eighteenth century. The image emerges of a flourishing musical microcosm, notable for the quantity and quality of the enterprises continually undertaken during the decades and, in particular, in the middle of the eighteenth century, when Lecce (the chief town of what was at that time an extensive province) gained the designation of "little Naples" - in other words, the second city in importance of the Bourbon kingdom - for the splendour and exuberance of its artistic traditions.
The productive cycle of music in the Terra d'Otranto in the eighteenth century was therefore relatively autochtonous: in fact, practically all the musical professions of the time were represented in this peripheral environment, often through the versatility of one single artist who moved freely (and well rewarded) between churches, palaces and theatres - and even more often through forms of association between musicians (supported in this instance by three notarial documents given in the Appendix).
At the same time, the musical milieu of the Terra d'Otranto was almost entirely conditioned by and moulded on the example of Naples, as can be seen from the "commuting" of numerous less illustrious maestri between the province of origin and the capital of the kingdom, through an activity programmed to accept and reflect without delay artistic forms and contents.
The object of research was the fondo of the Pia Istituzione Musicale, preserved at the State Library of Cremona, which consists of an archive of documents and a collection of music. The last-named includes around 130 musical editions (mainly vocal scores of nineteenth-century operas) and 234 manuscripts. The aim of the investigation was first to identify the nucleus of the collection so as to portray the identity of the entire fondo.
The Pia Istituzione Musicale of Cremona was a self-governing society of mutual assistance whose aim was to assist and provide pensions for local musicians using funds realized either from concerts or from financial operations. The authors of the project, and therefore the administrators and organizers, were the representatives of the city's musical institutions, that is: the Kapellmeister and harpsichordist at the theatre (Ruggero Manna), the first violin and conductor of the theatre orchestra and of the choir (Carlo Bignami), the coordinator of the wind instruments and music teacher of the orchestral players (Giovanni Maini). The collection - which did not constitute (except to a very minor degree) the repertory of the Pia Istituzione - was instead drawn from three principal sources. The first - the donation of don Cesare Paloschi, who had various responsabilities in the Società filarmonica di Cremona (1816-1855 circa) - consists of manuscripts which can be dated as falling between the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century and containing sacred and symphonic music by Haydn, Pleyel, Witt, Wranitsky, Küffner and Mozart, as well as some musical editions published by Johann André of Offenbach-am-Main. The second, contributed by the Manna family, formed part of the repertory of the company of buffi, the Ragazzi napoletani, who were active in Italian theatres from the end of the eighteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth century. The mother of Ruggero Manna was, in fact, Carolina Bassi, one of the favourite singers of Meyerbeer, Rossini and Mayr. The Manna donation includes full scores of operas by Cimarosa, Fioravanti, Guglielmi, Portogallo, Pavesi and Rossini, and opera excerpts by the above composers as well as by Mayr, Meyerbeer, Paer and Pacini. The third contribution consists of manuscripts of Italian symphonies (Bonfichi, Fioravanti, Nicolini, Rolla, Dusik...) found in the repertory of the Società filarmonica di Cremona in the second decade of the nineteenth century and donated by one of the families which founded the society. The three sources of the collection provide tangible evidence of three aspects of musical civilization in nineteenth-century Cremona in that they are closely related to the didactic, institutional and idealistic activities of its protagonists and supporters.
Transcriptions of the antique inventories and the catalogue of the manuscripts actually present in the library are given in the Appendix.
The history of the library of the Conservatorio S. Pietro a Majella is still little known, particularly for the years following the death of Francesco Florimo, librarian from 1826 to 1888. The librarians who succeeded Florimo were all well-known personalities in the literary and musical world of the time and contributed notably to the present set-up and organization of the library.
On the basis of documents in the Conservatory Archives, the paper reconstructs approximately fifty years of the history of the library. Contrary to what has long been assumed, the library added to its original collection also after Florimo. In particular, when Rocco Pagliara was librarian (for over twentyfive years), the library acquired important autographs, first editions, librettos, letters and heirlooms. The management of Pagliara, however, was so chaotic and 'personal' that a ministerial inspection became necessary in 1914. The inspection marks a significant moment in the life of the library as it was then put in the hands of the poet and scholar Salvatore Di Giacomo, librarian of the Biblioteca Nazionale of Naples, who brought his experience of twenty years in a public library to the Conservatory and provided S. Pietro a Majella, for the first time, with inventories, registers and regulations. His successor, Fausto Torrefranca, musicologist of international fame, drew up extensive plans for restructuring the library - since he considered that, given its importance, it should be transformed into an up-to-date centre of study and research equal to the other major music libraries of the world - but did not succeed in realizing them. After him, Guido Gasperini, president of the Association of Italian Musicologists, renewed the patient work of inventorying the immense patrimony of the library that had been begun by Di Giacomo and completed the cataloguing of the autograph material and of the historical collection, publishing in 1934 the printed catalogue which still today represents an indispensable tool for consulting the greater part of the original fondo of the library of the Conservatorio di S. Pietro a Majella.
The discovery of a substantial and interesting corpus of letters has permitted the reconstruction, even if for a relatively short period of time, of the biography of Alberto Franchetti, the Turin musician who was active between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. Addressed for the most part to his father, Raimondo and to the superintendent of the Carlo Felice Theatre of Genoa, Cesare Gamba, the letters (which are the property of his heirs) not only throw light on the artistic tastes of Franchetti and on his aesthetic ideas, but also provide specific information on his operas. In particular, the letters examined give information on the beginnings of Franchetti's musical career; on the vicissitudes of the performances of Asrael, Fior d'Alpe, Il signore di Pourceaugnac; on the origins and performance of Germania; on the relations between Franchetti and the librettist Luigi Illica and with the publishers Ricordi and Sonzogno; on his projects (never completed) for the operas Tosca, Maria Egiziaca, Macboulè.
The later period of Franchetti's life has been reconstructed on the basis of the recollections of his daughter Elena. A particularly important document dates back to this period: the score of the last work of Alberto Franchetti, Don Bonaparte, which he finished a year before he died and which was never published and has remained unknown until today.
The research on musical instruments may largely benefit from Southern Italian sources, witnessing the existence of many instruments devised or improved in that area, as well as of many inventions successfully exported from.
This study deals either with the description of instruments themselves or the explanation of unusual names found in musical treatises, in literary sources, and in musical scores from Southern Italy.
These instrumental traditions survived for centuries, but eased off - or even arrested - during the last one hundred years, after the political reunification of the Italian Peninsula.
Amongst many others, the following items are discussed: viola 'da arco' and 'da mano' (bowed and plucked vihuela), chitarrino or bordelletto (gittern), chitarra spagnola (baroque guitar), colascione (a long necked 'lute'), tiorba a taccone (quilled theorbo), mandolino, chitarra a sei corde (classic guitar), chitarra-lira (lyre-guitar), lira organizzata (organized hurdy-gurdy), arpa doppia (double harp), sambuca lincea and tricembalo (enharmonic harpsichord and clavichord), cembalo pieghevole (folding harpsichord), spinetta rettangolare (virginal), fortepiano a tangenti (Tangentenflügel), pianoforte, corde (strings), sordellina (Italian musette bagpipe), buttafuoco (a sort of tamburin de Béarn), vox humana (a tenor oboe), tromba da caccia (horn), neocorno (a bugle), armonica and melodium (musical glasses), glasschord (crystallophone), etc.
Fiamma Nicolodi - Maria Adelaide Bacherini - Andrea Chegai
In the years 1995-1998 the Tuscan Region - Cultural Assets and Libraries Department - financed a three-year project for cataloguing the texts of printed musical literature from 1470 to 1899 that are preserved in the libraries of Tuscany. This initiative was set up concurrently with the activity of LESMU-Lessico Musicale Italiano (Italian Music Lexicon). The paper presents the results of the census of printed books in Italian, Latin and other European languages on musical theory, aesthetics and criticism (treatises, epistolary biographies, pamphlets and also dedications, prefaces to scores, etc.) in the possession of the principal Florentine libraries (Conservatorio L.Cherubini, Laurenziana, Marucelliana, Nazionale, Riccardiana-Moreniana). Attention is then drawn to new findings and to the possibility of integrating, correcting and completing information extracted from current repertories.