- Maria Teresa Dellaborra, Il sacro sconosciuto: inediti sammartiniani a Vimercate, pp. 7-19. Abstract.
- Carmela Bongiovanni, Le fonti della musica vocale da camera di Ferdinando Paer, pp. 21-104. Abstract.
- Claudio Toscani, Una nuova acquisizione belliniana: fonti sconosciute per Adelson e Salvini, pp. 105-117. Abstract.
- Antonia Ianne, Le risorse Internet per la musicologia: strategie di ricerca e criteri di valutazione, pp. 119-143. Abstract.
- Valentina Mirella Marangi, Verso un thesaurus in materia di legislazione sui beni e le attività musicali: proposte di integrazione al TEsauro SEnato per l'Organizzazione dei documenti parlamentari, pp. 145-159. Abstract.
- Rassegna bibliografica 1999-2000, a cura di Carmela Bongiovanni, pp. 161-243.
Maria Teresa Dellaborra
The unknown sacred: unpublished Sammartiniana at Vimercate
Three unknown pieces by Giovanni Battista Sammartini, discovered among the music preserved in the parish archives, provide the occasion for an analysis of musical life at Vimercate in the eighteenth century. Obvious, or implicit, connections between the two realities emerge from a comparison of this milieu with contemporary culture in Milan and are sufficient at any rate to confirm not only the tangible presence in Vimercate of celebrated Milanese musicians – Gaetano and Felice Piazza (pupils of Sammartini), Giovan Battista Fiamenghino, Marco Eugenio Villani, Giuseppe Antonio Borone, all members of the ducal orchestra – but also that of an undoubtedly precious repertoire of composers in vogue (Johann Christian Bach, Giovanni Andrea Fioroni, Giovanni Battista Lampugnani, Melchiorre Chiesa, Giuseppe Paladino, Carlo Monza) strictly in the “concertato con stromenti” style and at times expressly conceived for the “Schola della Beata Vergine del Rosario”. The figure of Giovanni Battista Sammartini illuminates this situation – with the function of trait d'union – whose three unpublished scores examined in the course of this paper (Dixit dominus in F, for four voices and orchestra; Laudate pueri in D for soprano, contralto and orchestra; Duci cruento in F, for four voices and organ, a hymn specifically dedicated to St. Stephen, the patron saint of Vimercate), as well as a fourth (Litanie lauretane, already cited by Jenkins and Churgin), enrich this already considerable catalogue and at the same time confirm the intentional and characteristic stylistic stances of the composer.
The sources of Ferdinando Paër's vocal chamber music
The musical works of Ferdinando Paër (1771-1839) – a musician who was as fortunate during his lifetime as he is strangely little known today – presents numerous obscure aspects. A complete list of his theatrical works does not exist even in the field of opera: it is not surprising therefore that one of the minor “genres” par excellence with the Italian musicians straddling the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries – that is, vocal chamber music – is represented by a very substantial group of extremely varied compositions, conceived and composed by Ferdinando Paër in compliance with different conditions and audiences in Europe.
This is proved by the various languages Paër uses for his texts (mainly Italian and French, but also German and even Polish), the different arrangement of the musical intricacies confronted in his compositions (from the simple expressive strophic melody in perfect symbiosis with the characteristics of the French romance of the early nineteenth century to the lively highly ornamented air of Italian origin, with a thousand astonishing shadings between the two extremes), the multiplicity of musical forms employed, and the exceptionally wide dissemination of the great number of scores, a certain sign of success. A fundamentally immense and heterogeneous repertoire, in no way marginal in Paër's production, in which can be seen a notable range of creations (in addition to an undoubted diversity in quality), poised between customary music and works of art: an historical examination is necessary in order to arrive at a more accurate comprehension of the milieu and the users for which it was created. The article includes, in addition to an in-depth historical-critical introduction, a list of sources, accompanied by an index of names and textual incipit.
A new Belliniana acquisition: hitherto unknown sources for Adelson e Salvini
The Fondo Mascarello, recently acquired by the Milan Conservatory Library, contains important sources –hitherto unknown – for Adelson e Salvini, the opera with which Bellini in 1825 said goodbye to the Naples Conservatory at the termination of his studies. The Fondo includes a complete group of separate instrumental parts (some autograph) taken from the score of the first version of the opera. Since the original score, preserved at Catania, is incomplete, the new sources make it possible to ascertain the extent of the lacunae in the autograph manuscript, to establish the exact sequence of the numbers, to reconstruct the missing sections. The Fondo Mascarello also contains seven excerpts from the autograph score of the second version of Adelson e Salvini, prepared by Bellini in 1826 (or in 1827) for a production at the Teatro del Fondo in Naples, which however was never staged. Only a few fragments of this score were known to date: the new sources in fact permit the almost total completion of the original score and the accurate definition of the entity and nature of Bellini's reworking of the first version of the opera.
Antonia Alberta Ianne
Internet resources for musicology: search strategies and assessment criteria
The problem of identifying and selecting sources is one of the main obstacles to the use of Internet for study and research. In fact the extreme heterogeneity of the nature of web resources, associated with the absence of dependable resource locator tools, creates increasing difficulties for the musicologist in finding sources that are capable of meeting his specific information requirements.
The article analyses the problems connected with searching on Internet, examines the principal typologies of tools for finding information and assesses their applicability to musicology. Finally, the possibility is investigated of adapting traditional methodologies to the use of telematic tools. This last-mentioned point will be developed with particular attention to assessment criteria.
Currently, the most widespread access tools to web resources are the lists of links. The information, however, is frequently selected and structured according to unsystematic criteria and categories. Links are extremely useful tools for accessing qualified resources, even if they cannot be considered authentic indexes of electronic resources. Subject gateways are another access system; these are a more sophisticated type of search tool, the equivalent of the OPAC for on-line publications. They are organized on the basis of data and the description of the resource is usually accompanied by a review or a comment. Since subject gateways do not at present exist for musicology, the musicologist must turn to those dedicated to humanistic disciplines or to the performing arts. Another typology of tools is the lase (Limited Area Search Engine); these are search engines which scan only a certain number of sites dedicated to a discipline or to a disciplinary sector. The basic concept of the lase is that of cooperation between certain specialist sites. Tools of this kind do not yet exist for musicology. This would be the solution for more rapid realization, but it is necessary to establish collaborative relations and to define standard selection criteria.
Another problem connected with use of the web is that of information quality. The major part of the resources in fact are published without reliable control and selection procedures. The prospect of a systematic use of Internet for research activities has given rise to the need for developing criteria for the selection of resources already present on the web and for drawing up rules for creating web pages. Closely linked to the theme of value assessment is the problem relative to the scientific worth of web publications. The most significant contributions to value assessment to date have come from librarians and satisfy, for the most part, the practical purpose of assisting the user during a search. Debates on the subject have only recently been initiated in specific disciplinary sections. The prevailing trend has been that of estimating the applicability of the checklists already adopted for hard copy sources to the selection of on-line publications, in particular to reference sources. Analysis of the checklists has resulted in the discovery that the subjects of major interest in value assessment in telematics concern principally the formal aspects of the resource: that is, structure, utilization, stability, updating possibilities. Minor problems, instead, would seem to be connected with the analysis of content, which remains linked to verification of the requirements demanded by any work of scientific research: originality and innovativeness, methodological strictness, congruence with the discipline, thoroughness.
Valentina Mirella Marangi
Towards a thesaurus concerning legislation on musical assets and activities: proposed integration with the TEsauro SEnato per l'Organizzazione dei documenti parlamentari
The article focuses on the lexical and terminological study of juridical texts dealing with music as an opportunity for developing the relationship between musicology and juridical sciences; it is in fact considered that the consolidation of a common ground of investigation between the two disciplines, can contribute to a more extensive and detailed knowledge on the part of the legislator of our musical heritage and therefore influence significantly the decisions taken at institutional level.
The lack of autonomy and the notable disjointedness of legislation affecting music reflect, in a sense, the situation of the entire juridical system in Italy whose overloaded dimensions considerably limit comprehension of the rules and regulations as well as endangering the principle of the certainty of the Law. Given this complex situation, the juridical sciences have viewed favourably information technology for the advantages it offers both for comprehension of the laws and for improvement of the legislation. The most important acquisitions regarding the recovery, transference and processing of juridical information by means of digital tools are examined here, starting from the first institutional data banks programmed at the end of the Sixties and arriving at the actual – and always increasing – availability of information resources made possible by the advent of the information society and telematic networks.
Since it is held that the study of the legislative language relative to musical assets and activities can contribute to a better knowledge of the laws and to an improvement of the legislation, some possible realizations are proposed, useful not only at the stage of drafting the law but also at that of processing the juridical text and at that of recovering juridical information.
As a relevant example, the results of a textual analysis are given which was carried out on legislative texts concerning musical assets and activities and enacted between 1998 and 2001; in fact the hypothesis is formulated according to which the state of completeness of regulations relative to musical assets and activities can be determined starting from the quantity and variety of musical items and events identified and recognized by the juridical lexicon. The musical terms present in legislative texts have also been compared with their descriptors in the musical section of TESEO (Tesauro Senato per l'Organizzazione dei documenti parlamentari) in order to determine the comprehensiveness of the descriptors of TESEO in relation to the musical entities recognized by legislation as well as, in a wider perspective, to the musical reality. The considerations relative to the different degree of detail of the areas covered by TESEO and the recognition of the meagre analyticity of those inherent to music have led to consider advantageous the proposal of integrating the thesaurus of the Senate with new terms in the field of music.