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Fonti Musicali Italiane, 9 (2004)

Inserito in Fonti Musicali Italiane

Sommario

  • Francesco Rocco Rossi, Le presunte 'seconde versioni' del Ms. Mod α.M.13: intervento revisionale di Johannes Martini?. Abstract.
  • Teresa M. Gialdroni-Agostino Ziino, Nuove fonti dall'Officina di Ottaviano Petrucci. Abstract.
  • Gustavo Malvezzi, L'opéra-comique sulle scene torinesi nel secondo Settecento. Abstract.
  • Marcello Eynard-Paola Palermo, La musica a Roma nel secondo Settecento: testimonianze nelle lettere familiari dell'erudito Pierantonio Serassi. Abstract.
  • John A. Rice, A dispute involving the musico Giovanni Manzoli and Mozart's Ascanio in Alba. Abstract.
  • Roberto Scoccimarro, Un manoscritto de La serva padrona di Giovanni Paisiello nell'archivio musicale dell'Abbazia di Montecassino. Abstract.
  • Paolo Mechelli, Alessandro Lanari: il carteggio con impresari e delegati (1820-1830). Abstract.
  • Elena Previdi, I costruttori milanesi di strumenti musicali nelle guide commerciali dell'Ottocento. Abstract.
  • Pier Giuseppe Gillio, Documenti di interesse musicale nell'archivio privato di casa Giacosa. Abstract.
  • Mariella Sala, L'archivio musicale di casa Bravi. Abstract.
  • Rassegna bibliografica 2003, a cura di Carmela Bongiovanni.
  • Supplemento nel cd-rom allegato: Paolo Mechelli, Alessandro Lanari: il carteggio con impresari e delegati (1820-1830)

Abstract

Inizio pagina

Francesco Rocco Rossi

Le presunte 'seconde versioni' del Ms. Mod α.M.13: intervento revisionale di Johannes Martini?

Il manoscritto Mod α.M.13 della Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria di Modena, compilato a Ferrara nel 1481, attesta tre messe che, al confronto col resto della loro tradizione, sembrano essere delle 'seconde versioni'. Si tratta delle Missae Or sus or sus, Clemens et benigna e L'Homme Armé rispettivamente di Martini, di Caron e di Faugues. Le varianti che queste tre messe attestano nel codice estense vanno oltre le differenze normalmente rilevabili all'interno della tradizione di una composizione ma investono la loro struttura formale complessiva: aggiunte o soppressioni di interi submovimenti o modifica radicale dell'ordine delle sezioni interne. Stimolato dalla presenza di tali cospicue modifiche all'interno del medesimo codice, Lockwood assegnò (se pur cautamente) tale forte carica innovativa all'attività revisionale di Johannes Martini che, a capo della cappella musicale estense e sovrintendente ai lavori di confezionamento di questo e altri manoscritti musicali, avrebbe apportato le modifiche alle tre messe. L'analisi condotta in questo articolo è, invece, di segno opposto e mette in rilievo una situazione differente da quella prospettata da Lockwood. Solo nel caso della Missa L'Homme Armé di Faugues l'analisi paleografica e filologica (solo accennata nell'articolo) consente di parlare di 'versione rinnovata' non attribuibile, però, a Martini bensì allo stesso autore che dopo averla fatta ricopiare con estrema fretta nel Ms 14 del fondo della Cappella Sistina della Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticava la revisionò modificandone la struttura formale complessiva. Le lezioni estensi delle messe Or sus or sus (Martini) e Clemens et benigna (Caron) invece non sono seconde versioni, bensì semplicemente lezioni differenti: a volte più corrette, altre volte decisamente disordinate. In tal modo perde di fondamento l'ipotesi dell'attività revisionale di Johannes Martini.

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The presumed 'second versions' of Ms. Mod α.M.13: a revision of Johannes Martini?

The manuscript Ms. Mod α.M.13 of the Estense and University Library of Modena, compiled at Ferrara in 1481, upholds that on comparison with the rest of their tradition the three Masses appear to be 'second versions': Missae Or sus or sus, Clemens et benigna and L'Homme Armé by (respectively) Martini, Caron and Faugues. The variations evidenced in the Estense Codex for these three Masses go beyond the differences normally found within a traditional composition and concern their formal overall structure, i.e. additions or eliminations of entire sub-movements or radical modifications of the order of the internal sections. Prompted by the presence of such substantial modifications within the same codex, Lockwood assigned (even if tentatively) this strong innovative initiative to the revisionary activities of Johannes Martini who, as choirmaster of the Este chapel and superintendent of the work of compilation of this and other musical manuscripts, would have himself made the alterations to the three Masses. The analysis conducted in this article is, instead, an indication to the contrary and highlights a situation different from that suggested by Lockwood. Only in the case of Faugues' Missa L'Homme Armé, the palaeographic and philological analysis (mentioned in passing in this article) make it possible to speak of a 'revised version', not ascribable however to Martini but instead to the author himself who, after having having had it copied in great haste in Ms 14 of the fondo of the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican Apostolic Library, revised it and modified its formal overall structure. The Este readings of the Masses Or sus or sus (Martini) and Clemens et benigna (Caron) on the contrary are not 'second versions', but merely different readings – at times more correct, at others decidedly disorderly. In this way, the hypothesis of Johannes Martini's revisionary activity has no foundation.


Inizio pagina
Teresa M. Gialdroni – Agostino Ziino
Nuove fonti dall'officina di Ottaviano Petrucci

L'articolo illustra la recente scoperta di due frammenti appartenenti a due diverse stampe di Ottaviano Petrucci: il primo, che si trova nell'Archivio di stato di Fano, consiste nelle cc. 5r/v-6r/v della parte di Tenor de I motteti dal fiore stampati nel 1538; il secondo, conservato nell'Archivio di stato di Pesaro, contiene le cc. 5r/v-6r/v di una ristampa della parte di Altus della messa Mente tota di Antoine Févin presumibilmente del 1521, secondo Stanley Boorman. Il foglio di Fano contiene i seguenti mottetti: In convertendo con la sua seconda parte Qui seminant Dominus di Lupus Hellinck, Inviolata, integra et casta es Maria con la sua seconda parte O benigna di Jean Courtois, e Pater noster di Adrian Willaert. L'importanza di questo ritrovamento consiste nel rendere più consistente la recente scoperta di alcuni frammenti de I motteti dal fiore segnalata recentemente in «Early Music» (cfr. Gialdroni- Ziino, New light on Ottaviano Petrucci's activity, 1520-38. An unknown print of the Motteti dal fiore, «Early Music», XXIX/4, 2001, pp. 501-532), il che conferma e rafforza le ipotesi che in quella sede erano state avanzate riguardo la dipendenza di questa ultima stampa petrucciana dalla omonima raccolta di Jacques Moderne pubblicata a Lione nel 1532. Il foglio di Pesaro contiene il Gloria, il Credo e il Sanctus della messa Mente tota inserita nella stampa delle Messe di Févin edite per la prima volta a Fossombrone il 22 novembre 1515. Stanley Boorman ha individuato, di questa edizione, almeno altre due ristampe, l'ultima delle quali (alla quale dovrebbe appartenere il nostro frammento) risalirebbe presumibilmente al 1521. Le circostanze relative alla trasmissione di questo foglio – molto simili a quelle con cui ci sono pervenuti i tre frammenti relativi ai Motteti dal fiore – ci hanno indotto a ipotizzare anche per questa ristampa di Févin una datazione più recente rispetto a quella proposta da Boorman, comunque successiva al 1521.

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New sources from Ottaviano Petrucci's printing house

This article illustrates the recent discovery of two fragments of two different printings by Ottavio Petrucci: the first, in the State Archives of Fano, consists in the cc. 5r/v-6r/v of the tenor part of I motteti dal fiore printed in 1538 and the second, in the State Archives of Pesaro, contains the cc. 5r/v-6r/v of a reprint of the Altus part of Antonio Févin's Mass Mente tota presumably of 1521, according to Stanley Boorman. The Fano document includes the following motets: In convertendo with its second part Qui seminant Dominus of Lupus Hellinck, Inviolata, integra et casta es Maria with its second part O benigna of Jean Courtois, and Adrian Willaert's Pater noster. The importance of this find lies in its rendering more consonant the recent discovery of some fragments of I motteti dal fiore recorded in «Early Music» (see Gialdroni-Ziino, New light on Ottaviano Petrucci's activity, 1520-38. An unknown print of the Motteti dal fiore, «Early Music», XXIX/4, 2001, pp. 501-532), which confirms and strengthens the hypotheses that were advanced on that occasion relative to the dependence of this last Petrucci printing from the homonymous collection of Jacques Moderne published at Lyon in 1532. The document of Pesaro contains the Gloria, the Credo and the Sanctus of the Mente tota Mass included in the publication of Févin's Messe printed for the first time at Fossombrone on 22 November 1515. Stanley Boorman has identified at least two other reprints of this edition, the last of which (to which our fragment would belong) dates back presumably to 1521. The circumstances pertinent to the transmission of this sheet, very similar to those through which the three fragments relative to I motteti dal fiore have reached us, have led us to assume also for this reprint of Févin a more recent dating than that proposed by Boorman, and at any rate subsequent to 1521.


Inizio pagina
Gustavo Malvezzi
L'opéra-comique sulle scene torinesi nel secondo Settecento

Durante il XVIII secolo le compagnie teatrali francesi ebbero, grazie ai loro spostamenti attraverso l'Europa, un ruolo centrale nella diffusione dell'opéra-comique al di fuori dei confini nazionali, un aspetto tra i più rilevanti della storia di questo genere musicale e da anni oggetto di interesse da parte degli studiosi. Il fenomeno riguarda anche l'Italia, benché, come già osservava Philippe Vendrix, nel caso del nostro paese non poche difficoltà (carenza di documenti, lacune nel campo della ricerca) impediscano una sua esatta valutazione. Di certo, comunque, alcuni centri della penisola ebbero frequenti occasioni di ospitare compagnie d'oltralpe e tra questi Torino occupò un posto di prestigio, favorito anche dalla familiarità del suo pubblico con la lingua francese. Nel capoluogo sabaudo la presenza della cosiddetta commedia francese è testimoniata già a partire dal 1644. Con l'apertura del Teatro Carignano agli inizi del secolo successivo, questo genere di spettacolo – un'etichetta di comodo che abbracciava in realtà tragedie, commedie, opéras-comiques e altro ancora – godette di una sede stabile oltre che di un pubblico eterogeneo e aperto alle novità, mentre la sua gestione veniva affidata al prestigio della Nobile Società dei Cavalieri, responsabile, per incarico del re, di tutti i teatri torinesi, a cominciare dal Regio. L'abbondante messe di documenti attualmente presso l'Archivio Storico della città di Torino, che ha permesso in passato di ricostruire minuziosamente l'attività di quest'ultimo teatro, purtroppo non si è rivelata altrettanto generosa nel caso delle compagnie francesi. Nondimeno, attraverso i verbali delle sedute è possibile, in qualche caso, osservare da vicino le trattative della Società coi capicomici e, grazie ai registri dei conti, ricostruire anche integralmente il repertorio da essi proposto al Carignano. Limitando l'attenzione agli anni Settanta del Settecento, anni cruciali per l'opéra-comique, il presente articolo prende in esame il duplice soggiorno torinese, rispettivamente nel 1774 e nel 1776, della troupe guidata da Denis Sénepart nonché l'intrecciarsi, nel corso del 1775, delle trattative condotte dai Cavalieri con quest'ultimo e coi comici Le Neveu e Patte, scritturati per una stagione al Teatro Gallo di cui resta ignoto il cartellone ma su cui gettano luce la lista della compagnia e, indirettamente, le rappresentazioni da essa effettuate a Napoli nel 1777. Un confronto col repertorio proposto da Sénepart e quello della troupe Delisle, esibitasi a Torino nel 1755, documenta inoltre il passaggio, all'insegna del nome di Favart, dalle pièces en vaudevilles a quelle mêlées d'ariettes e soprattutto il progressivo affermarsi, parallelamente agli sviluppi parigini, dei lavori di Grétry, protagonisti della stagione torinese del '76, che sembra segnare peraltro il culmine della fortuna a Torino dell'opéra-comique. Lo suggeriscono gli eventi successivi, destinati a concludersi un po' in sordina, dopo un gran fervore di incontri e scambi epistolari, nelle recite della compagnia lionese Destouches cadette, tra la primavera e l'estate del 1778.

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Opéra comique on the Turin stages in the latter part of the eighteenth century

Thanks to their travels across Europe, French theatrical companies played a central role in the eighteenth century in the diffusion of opéra-comique beyond the borders of their own country and provided one of the most important features in the history of this musical genre, which for years has been an object of great interest to scholars. The phenomenon also concerned Italy even though, as Philippe Vendrix has already observed, in the case of our country not a few difficulties (scarcity of documents, lacunae in the research field) prevent its exact assessment. However, there is no doubt that some cities of the peninsula had frequent occasion to guest companies from beyond the Alps, Turin in particular rating a privileged position owing also to the familiarity of its audiences with the French language. The presence of the so-called French comedy in the Savoy capital was already evidenced in 1644. With the inauguration of the Teatro Carignano at the beginning of the following century, this genre of entertainment – a convenient label which in fact embraced tragedy, comedy, opéra comique as well as others – had the advantage of a permanent centre as well as a heterogeneous public open to novelties, while the management of the theatre was entrusted to the Nobile Società dei Cavalieri, responsible – by royal appointment – for all the Turin theatres, starting with the Regio. The abundance of documents currently in the possession of the Historical Archive of Turin – which in the past has enabled a meticulous reconstruction of the activity of the Teatro Regio – has unfortunately not been so generous in the case of the French companies. Nevertheless, through the minutes of the board meetings it has been possible, at least in some cases, to scrutinize the negotiations of the Società dei Cavalieri with the leaders of theatrical companies and, thanks to the account ledgers, reconstruct even in toto the repertoire proposed by the latter for the Carignano. Concentrating on the Seventies of the eighteenth century, crucial years for the opéra comique, the present article examines the two visits to Turin of the troupe led by Denis Sénepart – respectively in 1774 and 1776 – as well as the negotiations conducted during 1775 by the Cavalieri alternatively with Sénepart and with the comedians Le Neveu and Patte, engaged for a season at the Teatro Gallo with a programme which remains unknown but on which the list of the company's members sheds light as well as, indirectly, the performances effected by them at Naples in 1777. In addition, comparison of the repertoire proposed by Sénepart and that of the Delisle troupe at Turin in 1755 documents the transition, pioneered by Favart, from pièces en vaudevilles to those mêlées d'ariettes and, above all, the progressive success (parallel to developments in Paris) of Grétry's works which were the protagonists of the 1776 Turin season amd would seem to mark the height of success of the opéra comique at Turin. Subsequent events imply this, destined as they were to peter out, after a great fervour of meetings and exchange of letters, with the performances of the Destouches cadette company from Lyon sometime between the spring and summer of 1778.


Inizio pagina
Marcello Eynard – Paola Palermo
La musica a Roma nel secondo Settecento: testimonianze nelle lettere dell'erudito Pierantonio Serassi

Appartenente ad una celebre famiglia di costruttori d'organi, Pierantonio Serassi fu chiamato a Roma, nel 1754, come rettore del collegio Cerasoli. Rimarrà nella capitale quasi continuativamente fino alla morte avvenuta nel 1791. Fu, oltre che musicista dilettante e appassionato melomane (suonava, fra l'altro, il cembalo e il violino), insigne letterato. Pubblicò studi sui grandi della letteratura italiana: Dante Alighieri, Pietro Bembo e soprattutto Torquato Tasso. Di quest'ultimo fu il primo grande studioso in senso moderno sia promuovendo nuove edizioni delle sue opere (es. l'Amadigi, nel 1755), sia curandone una biografia, completata nel 1785, che si basa più sulla documentazione storica che sulla tradizione leggendaria. Pierantonio Serassi, durante il suo lungo soggiorno romano, scrive lunghe lettere ai familiari rimasti a Bergamo, ricche di puntuali riferimenti alla vita musicale della capitale. In ambito sacro, grazie al suo ruolo, ha il privilegio di assistere ad imponenti funzioni anche non accessibili al pubblico; frequente la sua presenza anche ad esecuzioni di musica profana. Egli rende dunque testimonianza, con curiosità, dell'imponente apparato musicale di certe celebrazioni liturgiche svoltesi alla presenza del papa o di cardinali. Descrive, con cognizione di causa, gli organi presenti in città, riferisce dell'attività dei maestri di cappella, maestri concertatori, cantanti e strumentisti più in vista, commenta le esecuzioni a cui ha modo di assistere. Attesta il perpetuarsi di un repertorio tradizionale come quello legato ai “famosi misereri” o allo Stabat Mater di Pergolesi. Commenta la massiccia presenza di musica per i festeggiamenti legati all'elezione di un nuovo papa o alla consacrazione di nuovi cardinali. Riferisce di incresciosi fatti di cronaca scaturiti dall'eccessiva ressa nell'assistere a manifestazioni col concorso della musica. Egli ci dà conferma di come la musica segni, in maniera pregnante, non solo i passaggi istituzionali e i momenti più significativi dei suoi eminenti protagonisti, ma anche le manifestazioni popolari della vita cittadina. Serassi stesso tiene i contatti con alcuni maestri di cappella e musicisti attivi a Roma.

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Music at Rome in the late eighteenth century as evidenced in the letters of the erudite Pierantonio Serassi

Member of a renowned family of organ makers, Pierantonio Serassi came to Rome in 1754 on his appointment as Rector of the Cerasoli College and remained in the capital almost continuously until his death in 1791. In addition to being an amateur musician and enthusiastic music-lover (he played, among other instruments, the harpsichord and the violin) he was a distinguished man of letters, publishing treatises on the greats of Italian literature: Dante Alighieri, Pietro Bembo and – above all – Torquato Tasso. He was the first important scholar, in the modern sense, to take an interest in Tasso, both promoting new editions of his works (for instance the Amadigi in 1755) and in publishing a biography – completed in 1785 – which was based on historical documentation rather than on legendary tradition. During his long residence in Rome, Pierantonio Serassi wrote lengthy letters to those members of his family who had remained in Bergamo, full of detailed references to the musical life of the capital. Thanks to his position as rector, he had the privilege of attending impressive religious functions, even those not open to the general public; he also frequently attended performances of secular music. Altogether he is a valuable witness, and one full of curiosity, of the impressive musical panoply of certain liturgical celebrations held in the presence of the Pope and cardinals. He describes, with extensive knowledge of the subject, the organs to be found in the city, refers to the activity of choirmasters, conductors, singers and instrumentalists, comments on the performances at which he was present. He confirms the continuance of a traditional repertoire like that connected with the famosi misereri or with Pergolesi's Stabat Mater and remarks on the massive presence of music in the festivities after the election of a new pope or at the consecration of new cardinals. He refers to the regrettable news resulting from the presence of excessive crowds attending events with music. He confirms how music marked, in a meaningful way, not only the institutional occasions and the more significant moments of the eminent protagonists involved in them, but also the popular events of city life. Serassi himself kept in touch with several choirmasters and musicians active at that time in Rome.


Inizio pagina
John A. Rice
Una disputa riguardante il musico Giovanni Manzoli e l' Ascanio in Alba di Mozart

Nell'autunno 1771 il musico Giovanni Manzoli cantò a Milano come primo uomo nel Ruggiero di Hasse e nell'Ascanio in Alba di Mozart. Al suo ritorno a Firenze, dove era impiegato come virtuoso di camera della corte granducale, egli sottopose un dossier al marchese Eugenio di Ligniville, direttore musicale del Granduca Pietro Leopoldo. Il dossier, contenenti documenti relativi a una disputa sull'ammontare dell'onorario di Manzoli per le opere in cui aveva cantato a Milano, è conservato tra le carte di Ligniville all'Archivio di Stato di Firenze. Comincia con una lunga esposizione di Manzoli, che riassume il contenuto delle 15 lettere allegate – copia della corrispondenza tra Manzoli e gli organizzatori degli spettacoli milanesi. I documenti confermano il racconto che Mozart ha dato della vicenda, ma forniscono molti dettagli ulteriori. Inoltre, contribuiscono alla comprensione delle modalità con cui gli impresari ingaggiavano i cantanti, gettano nuova luce sulla personalità di Manzoli e sul suo comportamento a Milano.

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A dispute involving the musico Giovanni Manzoli and Mozart's Ascanio in Alba

During Fall 1771 the musico Giovanni Manzoli sang in Milan as primo uomo in Hasse's Ruggiero and Mozart's Ascanio in Alba. On his return to Florence, where he served as virtuoso da camera to the grand-ducal court, he submitted a dossier to the Marchese Eugenio di Ligniville, music director to Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo. The dossier, containing documents concerning a dispute about how much Manzoli was to be paid for the operas in which he sang in Milan, is preserved among Ligniville's papers in the Archivio di Stato, Florence. It begins with a lengthy statement addressed by Manzoli to Ligniville, summarizing the contents of the fifteen letters that follow – copies of correspondence between Manzoli and those organizing the operas in Milan. The documents confirm Mozart's account of the affair, providing many more details than Mozart did. They increase our understanding of the process by which impresarios engaged singers, shed new light on Manzoli's personality, and help to explain his actions in Milan.


Inizio pagina
Roberto Scoccimarro
Un manoscritto de «La serva padrona» di Giovanni Paisiello nell'archivio musicale dell'Abbazia di Montecassino

Tra i numerosi testimoni manoscritti de La Serva padrona di Giovanni Paisiello, quello conservato presso l'Abbazia di Montecassino è stato finora ritenuto una copia. Si tratta in realtà di una fonte semiautografa, estremamente eterogenea e costituita da fascicoli originariamente autonomi, più tardi rilegati. Nella fonte sono presenti almeno sei mani. Quattro grafie sono certamente da attribuire a copisti, altre due al compositore, còlto in due diversi stadi creativi. Nel corso dello studio si sono volute distinguere fra loro le due grafie paisielliane per il solo fatto che una di esse abbozza le idee musicali frettolosamente, con vistose cancellature rimaste leggibili, mentre l'altra, pur mantenendo gli stessi tratti, scrive con più ordine, probabilmente copiando stesure provvisorie preesistenti. Complessivamente, alla mano autoriale sono da attribuire ben sette recitativi e cinque numeri chiusi. Quasi tutti i recitativi, ricchi di ripensamenti, sono totalmente differenti, tanto nella linea vocale quanto nella condotta armonica, dalla copia viennese degli intermezzi – considerata la versione definitiva della composizione per la firma appostavi da Paisiello in calce alla dedica all'imperatrice Caterina di Russia. I numeri chiusi del manoscritto cassinese, invece, coincidono pienamente con quelli finora conosciuti. In un passaggio all'interno di un recitativo steso da uno dei copisti, si è rivelato un rapporto di dipendenza dalla versione viennese – fatto questo, però, che ha valore solo per i brani copiati da questa mano. Il resto del manoscritto e il suo assemblaggio non hanno un rapporto diretto con la copia autorizzata da Paisiello, e non solo per via dell'evidente diversità dei recitativi: la successione dei numeri è talora erronea; l'aria Donne vaghe risulta assente; alcune indicazioni aggiunte per chiarire l'ordine dei brani mostrano un fraintendimento delle intenzioni paisielliane. La rilegatura dei fascicoli, avvenuta in un momento posteriore alla realizzazione della copia viennese, è il risultato di una volontà intervenuta per ricostituire l'unità di un'opera senza conoscerla pienamente. L'analisi dei recitativi autografi, destinati ad essere sostituiti, ha mostrato come Paisiello, in uno stadio creativo embrionale, tendesse a privilegiare la linea vocale rispetto al basso; quest'ultimo, spesso scritto in valori tenuti per numerose battute, si rivela a tratti armonicamente incompatibile con essa.

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A manuscript of Giovanni Paisiello's La serva padrona in the music archives of Montecassino Abbey

Among the numerous manuscripts of Giovanni Paisiello's La Serva padrona, the ms preserved at the Abbey of Montecassino has up to now been considered a copy. In actual fact it is a semi-autographical source, extremely heterogeneous and consisting of originally autonomous files bound together at a later date. At least six hands can be recognized in the source: four handwritings can without doubt be attributed to copyists, another two to the composer himself, at two different stages of creation. In the course of the present study, the two autographs of Paisiello have been differentiated merely because one of them hurriedly outlines the musical ideas, with substantial cancellations still readable, while the other, although in the same handwriting, is written in a more orderly manner, probably copying pre-existing provisional drafts. Altogether, at least seven recitatives and five closed numbers can be attributed to the composer's hand. Almost all the recitatives – full of afterthoughts – are totally different both in the vocal line and in the harmonic pattern from the Viennese copy of the intermezzi, which is considered the definitive version of the composition given the signature of Paisiello at the foot of the dedication to the Empress Catherine of Russia. The closed numbers of the Cassino manuscript, instead, coincide in full with those known to date. In a passage of a recitative written by one of the copyists a sort of dependence can be detected on the Viennese version – a fact, however, that is only important for the passages copied by this hand. The rest of the manuscript and its assembly does not have any direct connection with the copy authorized by Paisiello, not only because of the evident diversity of the recitatives: the series of closed numbers is at times incorrect; the aria Donne vaghe is missing; some indications added to illuminate the order of the passages demonstrate a misunderstanding of Paisiello's intentions. The rebinding of the files, carried out after the realization of the Viennese copy, is the result of a decision taken in order to re-establish the unity of an opera without full knowledge of it. Analysis of the autograph recitatives, destined to be substituted, has shown how Paisiello, in a creatively embryonic stage, tended to favour the vocal line rather than the basso continuo; the latter, frequently written in values held for several bars, is shown to be at times harmonically incompatible with the former.


Inizio pagina
Paolo Mechelli
Alessandro Lanari: il carteggio con impresari e delegati (1820-1830)

Questo contributo, frutto della tesi di dottorato dell'autore, contiene la schedatura di un corpus di 1090 lettere del carteggio di Alessandro Lanari con impresari e delegati. Spoglio lettura ed interpretazione di questo impervio magma documentario hanno teso ad individuare i rapporti privilegiati, le consuetudini produttive e la tecnica di montaggio delle stagioni operistiche, scrutando la trama delle segrete relazioni dell'impresario con i suoi colleghi e con quella insostituibile moltitudine operativa (delegati, informatori, amministratori) che operando occultamente, di fatto muoveva i 'fili della scena'. Per una gestione più razionale dei documenti epistolari e per agevolare una ricerca dei dati più flessibile e rapida si è scelto di accorpare il vasto materiale in un CD-ROM che consente di consultare tutte le lettere trascritte o riassunte, rintracciare le occorrenze dei singoli nominativi o dei titoli (opere e balli), seguire lo svolgersi della corrispondenza di un singolo mittente. Nel documento cartaceo che accompagna il CD-ROM il lettore troverà alcune considerazioni-guida in merito alla tipologia del carteggio (frutto di una pressante attività di lavoro, nato per contingenti esigenze professionali e pertanto alieno da qualsiasi scrupolo linguistico-formale), alla tipologia delle lettere, al campo di scelta, (che isola i rapporti di Lanari con impresari, delegati, agenti teatrali, sostanzialmente nell'arco cronologico 1820-30), nonché ai personaggi e ai temi ravvisabili nelle lettere, che svelano certe convenzioni del sistema produttivo del teatro musicale ottocentesco, così come i meccanismi, i comportamenti e le strategie gestionali dell'impresario, finalmente osservabili da 'dietro le quinte'. Infine, nella nota ai testi, vengono illustrati i criteri di trascrizione adottati.

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Alessandro Lanari: correspondence with impresarios and representatives, 1820-1830

This contribution, which is the fruit of the author's Ph.D. dissertation, contains the filing of a corpus of 1090 letters between Alessandro Lanari and various impresarios and representatives. The selection, perusal and interpretation of this almost impenetrable magma of documents has been directed at singling out the privileged relationships, production customs and assemblage techniques of operatic seasons through the examination of Lanari's secret contacts with his colleagues and with that irreplaceable host of operators (representatives, informers, managers) who, with their hidden dealings, were the actual manipulators of the 'on-stage wires'. In order to provide for a more rational management of the correspondence and for a more flexible and rapid data retrieval, it was decided to store the vast material in data bank form in a CD-ROM. In this way it will be possible to consult all the letters, whether integral or abridged, to locate the occurrence of individual names and titles (operas and ballets) and to follow the course of the correspondence of each sender. In this article, attached to the CD-ROM, the reader can find some explanatory notes on the typology of the correspondence (written under strong pressure of work and for contingent professional reasons, and therefore devoid of any linguistic or stylistic attention), on the type of letters, on the chosen field (which locates the relations between Lanari and the impresarios, representatives, theatrical agents for the period 1820-1830), as well as on the personalities and topics recognisable in the letters which disclose certain customs of the production system of the nineteenth-century musical theatre as well as the mechanics, behaviour and managerial strategies of the impresario, at last observable from 'backstage'. Finally, the transcription criteria adopted are illustrated in the note on the texts.


Inizio pagina
Elena Previdi
I costruttori milanesi di strumenti musicali nelle guide commerciali dell'Ottocento

L'articolo raccoglie le notizie sui costruttori di strumenti musicali che emergono dalle guide commerciali milanesi pubblicate fra il 1791 ed il 1889. Antesignane delle odierne “Pagine gialle”, le guide commerciali sono repertori nominativi, editi con cadenza annuale, che elencano le ditte attive in una determinata località. Il primo esemplare rinvenuto è il Servitore di piazza (1791), che riporta al suo interno nomi, indirizzi e professioni di centinaia di esercizi commerciali milanesi, fra i quali è stato possibile rinvenire numerosi nominativi di costruttori di strumenti musicali. Fra le guide apparse successivamente a Milano spiccano, per gli scopi della presente ricerca, l'Almanacco del commercio (pubblicato almeno fra il 1809 ed il 1820), l'Interprete milanese (fra il 1817 ed il 1830) e la Guida Bernardoni (1825-1889). Il presente lavoro si configura come primo contributo in vista di una sistematica raccolta di dati allargata ai repertori delle altre città italiane. L'utilità di tale ricerca è risultata indubbia alla luce delle informazioni, raccolte nel repertorio in coda all'articolo, che restituiscono un'immagine assai vitale del panorama cittadino per tutto il periodo considerato: parecchi nominativi emersi erano, fino ad oggi, completamente sconosciuti, per gli altri è stato possibile in primo luogo appurare i recapiti e i loro mutamenti nel tempo, in secondo luogo determinare più precisamente l'epoca di attività. Infine, vengono discusse le numerose problematiche che lo spoglio comporta (presenza di errori, refusi e lacune in tutte le guide), che consigliano cautela nell'utilizzo dei dati raccolti.

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Milanese musical instrument makers according to the commercial directories of the nineteenth century

The article presents the information on musical instrument makers which is to be found in the commercial directories published in Milan between 1791 and 1889. Forerunners of today's 'Yellow Pages', the commercial directories are by name indexes, published annually, which list the firms active in a specific locality. The first example discovered is the Servitore di piazza (1791) which contains the names, addresses and professions of hundreds of commercial firms in Milan among which it is possible to single out numerous names of musical instrument makers. Among the directories which subsequently appeared in Milan, the following stand out for the purpose of the present research: Almanacco del commercio (published probably between 1809 and 1820), Interprete milanese (between 1817 and 1830) and Guida Bernardoni (1825-1889). This paper is the first contribution towards a systematic collection of data extended to the directories of other Italian cities. The usefulness of this research appears unquestionable in the light of the items of information listed in the index at the end of this article, which give a realistic overview of the city for the whole period under consideration: a great many names were to date completely unknown, while for the others it has been possible in the first place to verify addresses and any changes over the years and, secondly, to pinpoint more precisely the period of activity. Finally, the numerous problems connected with the scrutiny are discussed (presence of errors, misprints and lacunae in all the directories) which advise a cautious utilization of the data collected.


Inizio pagina
Pier Giuseppe Gillio
Documenti di interesse musicale nell'archivio privato di Casa Giacosa: esiti di uno spoglio ricognitivo

A Colleretto Giacosa, piccolo comune in provincia di Torino che con l'estensione del nome ricorda il suo cittadino più illustre, sorge la casa del drammaturgo. Qui si conserva l'archivio: decine di buste in cui sono suddivise minute e stesure autografe di drammi, saggi, versi e un epistolario di dimensioni rilevanti. Poiché manca a tutt'oggi un'inventariazione sistematica del fondo, l'articolo si propone di offrire una descrizione generale della natura, della distribuzione e della consistenza dei documenti di solo interesse musicale. La frazione dell'epistolario qui presa in considerazione consiste complessivamente di 46 lettere di Puccini e di 17 di Giulio Ricordi. Di Mascagni è un'unica lettera, di Tamagno due e di Verdi un cartoncino e un biglietto da visita. Le carte preparatorie dei libretti si preservano in tre distinte buste. Il materiale di Bohème è complessivamente composto da 111 carte, per complessive 170 facciate circa di testo. Tutte le carte, a eccezione di due del quadro II e della stesura originaria del quadro III, di pugno di Illica, sono autografi di Giacosa. Lo scarso materiale di Tosca è stato recentemente integrato da un importante documento: l'intero libretto, trascritto da copisti di Ricordi probabilmente nel dicembre 1896, con numerose correzioni e annotazioni marginali di Giacosa, Illica, Ricordi e Puccini. In questo manoscritto, e altri di stesura successiva, la scena finale è ancora quella della pazzia di Tosca, successivamente sostituita da quella della morte. Il materiale della busta Butterfly è particolarmente opulento, consistendo di carte sciolte per complessive 183 facciate di testo. Tra i documenti più significativi i testi afferenti all'espunto atto del consolato. In carte fascicolate si conservano poi l'intero primo atto e due diverse versioni del secondo, di mano di un copista dell'editore, per complessive 57 pagine numerate. Si conserva inoltre la prima edizione del libretto con fitte correzioni manoscritte da Giacosa, a margine o in cartigli inseriti. Concludono l'articolo l'elencazione e la descrizione delle minute dei libretti e dell'epistolario. In appendice sono trascritti 14 documenti inediti: versi di Giacosa, forse destinati a Manon Lescaut, e lettere degli anni 1901-1904 di Puccini, Mascagni e Giulio Ricordi.

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Documents of musical interest in the private archive of Casa Giacosa: the results of a recognitive examination

The dramatist's house is at Colleretto Giacosa, a small town in the province of Turin which with the addition of Giacosa to its original name commemorates its most illustrous citizen. Here, in the private archive are dozens of envelopes containing, subdivided, rough copies and autograph drafts of plays, treatises and verses as well as an ample collection of letters. Since to date a systematic inventory of the fondo does not exist, this article proposes to give a general description of the nature, distribution and consistence of the documents of purely musical interest. The letters taken into consideration consist of 46 letters from Puccini and 17 from Giulio Ricordi; one letter only from Mascagni, two from Tamagno and a postcard and visiting card from Verdi. The preliminary drafts of librettos are stored in three separate envelopes. The material of Bohème consists of 111 sheets for approximately 170 sides of text altogether. All the sheets, with the exception of two of scene II and the original draft of scene III, in Illica's handwriting, are Giacosa autographs. The scanty material of Tosca has been recently integrated by an important document: the entire libretto, transcribed by Ricordi copyists probably in December 1896, with numerous corrections and marginal notes by Giacosa, Illica, Ricordi and Puccini. In this manuscript, and in others of subsequent drafts, the final scene is still that of the madness of Tosca, subsequently replaced by her death. The material of the Butterfly envelope is particularly opulent, consisting of loose sheets with 183 sides of text. Among the more significant documents, the texts relative to the elimination of the Act set in the consulate. The whole first Act and two different versions of the second are in bound sheets, in the handwriting of a copyist of the publisher, altogether 57 numbered pages. In addition, there is the first edition of the libretto, full of manuscript corrections by Giacosa either in the margin or on inserted cards. The article concludes with the enumeration and description of the letters and of rough copies of the libretto. Fourteen unpublished documents are reproduced in the Appendix: verses by Giacosa, perhaps destined for Manon Lescaut, and letters of the years 1901-1904 from Puccini, Mascagni and Giulio Ricordi.


Inizio pagina
Mariella Sala
L' archivio musicale di Casa Bravi

Nel 1939 il musicologo Giacomo Benvenuti e l'industriale Eugenio Bravi avviarono un'ambiziosa impresa editoriale, «I Classici Musicali Italiani», con lo scopo di pubblicare, in edizione pratica, opere poco note «di musicisti celebri, meno celebri, poco conosciuti o affatto sconosciuti»; così queste opere sarebbero riemerse da biblioteche e archivi e si sarebbero potute eseguire e ascoltare dopo secoli di oblio. Il progetto originale prevedeva una serie preliminare di più di 60 volumi in soli cinque anni. Ma lo scoppio della guerra e la malattia di Benvenuti, che morì poco dopo (20 gennaio 1943) sancirono la fine del progetto. La serie dei «Classici» fu in effetti interrotta nel 1943 dopo la pubblicazione di soli 14 volumi (con una coda nel 1956 quando furono stampate le Sonate op. 6 di Locatelli). Durante la guerra l'intero archivio dei «Classici» venne trasferito a Barbarano, ridente località sul Lago di Garda, per metterlo al riparo dalle incursioni aeree. Qui, in Casa Bravi, non solo è ancora disponibile l'archivio della Società (corrispondenza, verbali della Società, bilanci), ma, soprattutto, il materiale musicale che doveva servire alla preparazione delle edizioni: alcune rare edizioni settecentesche acquistate per permettere la trascrizione direttamente sulle stampe 'originali', e una ricca raccolta di riproduzioni fotografiche. Queste ultime sono in qualche caso accompagnate da trascrizioni già realizzate da noti studiosi (Giazotto, Dagnino, Mompellio, Sartori, Piccioli), prova ulteriore della cura di Benvenuti nello scegliere i suoi collaboratori.

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The musical archive of Casa Bravi

In 1939 musicologist Giacomo Benvenuti and industrialist Eugenio Bravi embarked on an ambitious publishing initiative, «I Classici Musicali Italiani», with the objective of publishing, in a practical edition, unfamiliar works «of celebrated, less celebrated, little known or totally unknown musicians»; in this way these works emerged from the libraries and archives and were given the opportunity to be performed and heard after centuries of oblivion. The original plan foresaw a preliminary series of well over 60 volumes in only five years. However the outbreak of war and the illness of Benvenuti which led very soon to his death (20 January 1943) rendered the project out of the question. The series of «Classici» was in fact interrupted in 1943 after the publication of a mere fourteen volumes (with a final coda in 1956 when Locatelli's Sonate op. 6 were printed). During the war the entire archive of the «Classici» was moved to Barbarano, a delightful locality on Lake Garda, so as to safeguard it from air raids. Here, in Casa Bravi, not only all the records of the Company are still available (financial accounts, correspondence, board minutes and reports), but also all the musical material which had served (or would have served if it had been possible to continue with the publication project) for the preparation of the editions for the press: some original prints of the eighteenth century and a rich collection of photographic reproductions. Some of the reproductions are accompanied by transcriptions already completed by scholars (Giazotto, Dagnino, Mompello, Sartori, Piccioli) who at that time were well-known – added proof of the great care taken by Benvenuti in choosing his collaborators.

Fonti Musicali Italiane, 8 (2003)

Inserito in Fonti Musicali Italiane

Sommario

  • Licia Sirch, Aspetti dell'editoria musicale bresciana dopo il Concilio di Trento. Abstract.
  • Lorenzo Mattei, Metastasio con il berretto frigio. Sui Veri amici repubblicani di Niccolò Zingarelli (Torino 1799). Abstract.
  • Carmela Bongiovanni, Ancora sulle fonti della musica vocale da camera di Ferdinando Paër: appendice di integrazioni e correzioni. Abstract.
  • Giuliano Castellani, Osservazioni sulle fonti della musica vocale da camera di Ferdinando Paër. Abstract.
  • Chiara Cirilli, "Giovanna d’Arco" di Gaetano Rossi e Nicola Vaccaj: genesi e ricezione dell’opera, fonti testuali e musicali. Abstract.
  • Oreste Palmiero, Un episodio di storia della tipografia musicale in Italia: il musicografo Ferretto. Abstract.
  • Rosanna Peciccia, La Bibliografia on-line delle «Fonti Musicali Italiane». Abstract.
  • Rassegna bibliografica 2001-2002, a cura di C. Bongiovanni.
  • Abstracts

Abstract

Inizio pagina

Licia Sirch

Music publishing at Brescia after the Council of Trent

Music publishing initiatives at Brescia during the sixteenth century were short-lived (from 1579 to 1588, with some minor offshoots in the seventeenth century), but they were clearly symptomatic of a critical moment in the history of Italian music publishing at that time. In this paper the subject is examined with reference to historical and cultural conditions in Lombardy after the Council of Trent, bearing in mind present-day historical and musicological research trends which tend to view in a different light the steps taken by the Archbishop of Milan, Carlo Borromeo with regard to publishing houses in general and the production of church music in particular, each considered as formidable instruments (together with morality plays) for promoting sacred, spiritual and moral values and participation in the ideal project of the so-called Catholic Counter-Reformation.
The paper then analyses synthetically the production of music publishing in Milan before 1576, paying particular attention to the document 1-Mb, Musica B 39, a Milanese miscellany of spiritual lauds, in part manuscript and in part published at Milan in 1576, which clearly illustrates the different climate and 'renovated' role of music – that of delectare iuvando et docendo – but which, at the same time, marks a slack moment in Milanese music publishing, a moment which continued up to 1585. It was during these years of silence that the music publishing of Brescia had the opportunity to make a name for itself.
During this period, the Borromeo reform was in full swing with a massive production of books at Milan and Brescia, the last-named city being renowned for its typographical traditions and enjoying a favourable situation arising from economic and jurisdictional motives: in fact, forming part on the one hand of the ecclesiastical province of Milan and on the other of the Venetian domain, it had the advantage of both the rich commissions of Milan and the more liberal policy of the 'Serenissima'.
The three printers of music in Brescia (Vincenzo Sabbio, Tommaso Bozzola and Pietro Maria Marchetti, who formed a partnership in 1595 as the Compagnia editoriale bresciana) were members of the most established and successful families of local printers. It can be seen from analysis of the musical production (approximately 40 publications, excluding liturgical books) that the repertoire on the whole is religious and of authors who were either natives of Brescia or worked there; there are also reprints of 'famous' Brescian composers (Giovanni Contino and Teodoro Riccio) who brought prestige and more dependable 'profits'; among the more influential musicians figure Vincenzo Ruffo, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Giovanni Matteo Asola, whose style was considered in perfect keeping with the precepts of the Council and the directives of Borromeo on church music; in addition there were some editions realized on commission for Milan and Cremona booksellers.
Further more profound reasons for the rise of the Brescia phenomenon are to be found in the letters prefacing the editions, which show that the initiative of printing music was originally taken by some local musicians (Placido Falconio, Costanzo Antegnati and Germano Pallavicino) who imported the characters used in printing music from Venice, conscious of the importance of printed music as a means of diffusion of a music that was held to be a medium of spirituality. To handle the many commissions and sales, the best-equipped local printing-house made available its facilities and means of distribution, also thanks to the greater liberty which the city in those years enjoyed in comparison to Milan.
In the context of the historical development of music publishing in Lombardy, and in Italy in general, after the Council, the role of the Brescia publishing houses can be defined as originating from those local musicians and composers belonging to the first post-Council generation, in whose work the first results of the Borromeo reform are already evident.
A list of sixteenth-century music editions is given in appendix to this paper.


Inizio pagina

Lorenzo Mattei

Metastasio with the Phrygian cap. On «I veri amici repubblicani» of Niccolò Zingarelli (Turin 1799)]

The accidental discovery, in the library of the «L. Cherubini» Conservatory, of the score (incomplete) of Zingarelli's Veri amici repubblicani has made it possible to examine the setting to music of a poetic text involved with revolutionary ideals and frequently quoted by scholars as an example of the 'transformism' to which the themes of serious opera were subjected in the period between Ancien régime and Revolution. As far as the stylistic layout of the libretto is concerned, it can be observed how the changed textual content still follows the Metastasian model which was congenial to rendering homage to both the French army and the forces of the Restoration. The music too does not respond to the stimulus of a text crammed with apologies of Jacobin and libertarian ideals with the adoption of stylistic features characteristic of revolutionary music; on the contrary, it remains centred on the abstract belcanto feature (employing the voices of two castratos for the male protagonists) and on the quest for a more sophisticated relationship between voice and orchestral accompaniment. The facile melodizing of Zingarelli becomes truly expressive by settling on the well-proven forms congenial to the traditionalist audiences of Turin.
Since nearly all the music of the serious operas explicitly composed in homage to the Revolutionary troops is not to be found, I veri amici repubblicani assumes considerable importance: the opera represents the tessera of a mosaic illustrating a clear 'divorce' between the 'revolutionary' contents of the librettos and their realization in music.


Inizio pagina

Carmela Bongiovanni

More information on the sources of Ferdinando Paër's vocal chamber music: an appendix of integration and correction

New musical sources, discovered in several important European libraries and pertaining to the immense production of vocal chamber music by Ferdinando Paër (1771-1839), contribute to affirming the importance of Paër above all in the field of composition of brief romances. It is in fact the production (in French) of the period of his permanence at Paris which is given a contribution of significance by this inventory. On the other hand, if the surviving published musical sources give the exact measure of the mass of compositions which the composer from Parma undertook at Paris, a scrutiny of the daily French newspapers of the first thirty years of the nineteenth century (extremely difficult owing to the multitude of pages to be examined) serves to show how many of the vocal compositions of Paër remain unknown (or at least have to be elucidated in relation to the surviving musical sources) and how many versions similar short pieces may have incurred as far as instrumentation and performance practice are concerned.
An example is given by the following notice in the «Journal de l'Empire» of 12 April 1812, announcing the programme of a concert at the Conservatoire Impérial de Musique in Paris: the various compositions (a medley of authors and vocal and instrumental genres typical of the period) include a «Polonaise de M. Paer, chanté par M. [Louis Antoine Éléonore] Ponchard, avec accompagnement obligé de violoncello exécuté par M. (Louis) Norblin». There is no record – up to now – in musical sources of a vocal polonaise by Paër with cello obbligato (there are indeed two polonaises, but not with that instrumentation – the theatrical works are naturally excluded); this testimony further increases our knowledge of Paër's vocal compositions. Other data, always gathered from French dailies, contribute to give a more precise chronology of the editions of already known pieces: for instance, O notte soave, serenata a quattro voci con accompagnamento d'arpa o Piano-forte, corno, violoncello e Contro-Basso. The Paris, Imbault [1807-1811] edition, already indicated in the previous inventory, can be given a positive dating of 1811 in the light of two notices in the «Journal de l'Empire» of 9 July and 9 August 1811. Indeed, the second notice also specifies that the author of the verses of the composition is M. Moline. An interesting point in these two notices is the significant variation in the title compared to the known musical sources: harp and piano are not interchangeable (as indicated on the frontispiece of the edition) but are included side by side in the instrumentation.


Inizio pagina

Giuliano Castellani

Comments on the sources of Ferdinando Paër's vocal chamber music and cantatas

This paper originated as a brief appendix to Carmela Bongiovanni's ample catalogue of the sources (printed and manuscript) of Ferdinando Paër's vocal chamber music which was included in the 2001 and 2003 numbers of «Fonti Musicali Italiane». First of all, various direct affirmations are cited on Paër's Parisian activities as composer of vocal chamber music, singer and maître de chapelle; during the Twenties and Thirties of the nineteenth century in fact the leading music periodicals of Paris, together with several important critics and musicians (such as Castil-Blaze and Jean-Georges Kastner), already indicated Paër as one of the major exponents of the French romance. Paër, however, was not only a composer but also an excellent performer of vocal chamber music: there are numerous descriptions of his performances at the Imperial Court, where he accompanied his bass-baritone voice at the piano singing the most amusing pieces from the comic repertoire for the entertainment of Napoleon. In addition, he was one of the most prestigious teachers of singing in Paris: this is even further proved by the publication of his important didactic works, such as xxiv Exercices pour voix de soprano ou de ténor and Trente-six vocalises pour voix de basse-taille ou baryton; by the names of some of the singers who trained or specialized with him – Giuditta Pasta, Joséphine de Méric, Francilla Pixis; finally, by his nomination in September 1831 as «Inspecteur de l'instruction et du chant» at the Conservatory of the French capital. Subsequently, the integrations and additions to the catalogue of sources compiled by Bongiovanni are presented: a preliminary scrutiny of musical sources carried out at various archives and libraries in fact permits the descriptions to be completed of, for example, the romances entitled La confession and Le refus; it has also been possible to determine with precision the period of composition and publication of the romance La première déclaration, and even to reconstruct the circumstances underlying the birth of the piece; again, new documents are of assistance in gauging the exact date of the first performance of the cantata Diana ed Endimione; in the case of Saffo, instead, it is an unpublished letter from Paër himself which suggests the possible dating of the cantata; finally, the music comes to light of two hitherto unknown Paer cantatas: La famiglia filarmonica and Ulisse e Penelope.


Inizio pagina

Chiara Cirilli

«Giovanna d'Arco» by Gaetano Rossi and Nicola Vaccaj: origin and reception of the opera, sources of text and music

The paper offers a contribution to the standing of two significant figures in Italian music theatre of the early nineteenth century, the composer Nicola Vaccaj (Tolentino, 1790 – Pesaro, 1848) and the librettist Gaetano Rossi (Verona, 1774 – 1855), through the study of the romantic opera Giovanna d'Arco.
Thanks to documentation to be found in the Biblioteca Filelfica of Tolentino (Macerata) relative to the years 1826-28, it has been possible to reconstruct the events connected to the drafting of the libretto, to the performances of the opera – in particular, the first performance at Teatro La Fenice, Venice in 1827 and its revival at Teatro San Carlo, Naples in 1828 – and to its reception by public and critics. From correspondence between Rossi and Vaccaj it is possible to retrace the various stages through which the composition of the libretto passed: from the first version – inspired by the French tragedy of C.J. Loeuillard d'Avrigny, Jeanne d'Arc à Rouen, which was refused by the composer – to the second and final version – inspired by the tragedy of F. Schiller, La pulzella d'Orléans. The letters containing the two scenarios are given in full in the Appendix.
The correspondence between Nicola Vaccaj and his Venetian friend Girolamo Viezzoli adds to the information available on the drafting of the libretto and reconstructs in detail the ups and downs relative to the Neapolitan production of the opera in 1828. The musical sources so far available, both manuscript and printed, are then examined: an autograph and two copies, six printed excerpts and two librettos. Analysis and comparison of the musical sources and librettos evidences how the opera underwent substantial changes on the occasion of the Neapolitan production of 1828 – entire scenes cut, massive modifications to the vocal cast, introduction of the happy ending – changes imposed by the impresario Barbaja and by the regulations of the Teatro San Carlo, and unwillingly carried out by the composer. The lack of direct musical sources on the third and last performance of Giovanna d'Arco at Palermo's Teatro Carolino in 1830 debars an in-depth analysis of the nature of the production; it can however be assumed, from a review of the time, that the opera proposed at the Carolino contained elements from both first and second versions.


Inizio pagina

Oreste Palmiero

An episode in the history of music printing in Italy: Ferretto's «musicografo»

The paper proposes to bring to light the innovative but unfortunate attempt of Andrea Ferretto (Barbarano Vic., 1864 – ibidem, 1942), a musician from Vicenza, who at the beginning of the last century designed a specific machine for writing music in an attempt to solve an age-old problem that had already baffled several generations of enthusiastic inventors.
The «musicografo» – as he called the ingenious device, apparently similar to an ordinary typewriter – was able, in addition to reproducing on the stave with great clarity notes, eventual text and a variety of graphic signs, also to transpose directly a piece of music in any key – thus simplifying considerably the work of the copyist.
Exhibited with success on various occasions, the machine – thanks above all to the simplicity of use and to the proven manageability – received favourable notices also beyond the national frontiers, as can also be seen in the wealth of technical reviews attached to this paper. Nevertheless, notwithstanding the unflagging efforts of its creator and the unconditional support of the Fascist governmental authorities, the «musicografo» did not succeed in catching on – due perhaps to persistent stonewalling by the publishing world – and so ended its days lying abandoned in the workshop of its unfortunate inventor.


Inizio pagina

Rosanna Peciccia

The on-line bibliography of «Fonti Musicali Italiane»

Bibliographic research has always been the starting point for all types of investigation, carried out with scientific criteria. The recent development of Internet has in point of fact opened up new prospects for the bibliographic discipline which today can avail itself of tools for an always more accurate and sophisticated research. The convergence between information technology and humanistic disciplines, already underway in the past, now tends towards the processing and presentation of structured data and the coding of texts in electronic version. The more significant developments of research in this direction include the markup languages conceived and developed for the structured presentation of all types of document.
The paper starts with a brief survey of the markup languages, from the original version SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) up to the recent XML (Extensible Markup Language) and above all to their application in the area of text processing systems. Analysis of the technical characteristics of the language evidences its potentiality in various areas of research, including the processing of bibliographic lists. Thanks to a target programme, XML makes it possible to codify in electronic version any type whatsoever of bibliography and subsequently to publish it on Internet together with the mentioned interrogation procedures.
In this way, the choice of XML as a 'translation' code of the Rassegne Bibliografiche edited by «Fonti Musicali Italiane» is placed in an explicit setting, as well as the following detailed description of the entire project. The fundamental logic underlying the project Bibliografia delle Fonti Musicali Italiane on-line is that of creating a tool which is at the same time intuitively structured and sufficiently descriptive. The various stages, first of the programming and subsequently of the realization, verification and research, are described in the course of this paper and are completed with examples which illustrate, in order, the original references in paper form, parts of the edited XML code and results of polling the Rassegne on the web site of the Società Italiana di Musicologia.

 

Fonti Musicali Italiane, 7 (2002)

Inserito in Fonti Musicali Italiane

Sommario

  • Dinko Fabris – Paolo Peretti, Nuove fonti marchigiane in intavolatura per strumenti a corde pizzicate (secc. XVI-XVII), pp. 7-17. Abstract.
  • Teresa Chirico, Uno sconosciuto libretto della Dirindina di Girolamo Gigli, pp. 19-29. Abstract.
  • Giuseppina Mascari, Il «Corriere delle dame». Spoglio e indici delle notizie musicali (1804-1818), pp. 31-126. Abstract.
  • Rosy Moffa, Le composizioni per voce e pianoforte nei fondi manoscritti del Conservatorio «Giuseppe Verdi» di Torino, pp. 127-236. Abstract.
  • Rassegna bibliografica, a cura di Carmela Bongiovanni, pp. 237-315.

Abstract

Inizio pagina

Dinko Fabris – Paolo Peretti

New sources from the Marches of tablatures for plucked string instruments – XVI and XVII centuries

The paper presents two rare new sources of instrumental music discovered in the Marches, a region which in the past few years has been the seat of extremely important archival-musical finds, from manuscript fragments of ars nova music between the xiv and xv centuries to parts of a hitherto unknown musical work printed by Ottaviano Petrucci. In this particular instance, the new sources are two manuscript tablatures for plucked instruments, more precisly: A) a tablature for lute in the book of a Jesi notary for the years 1531-1533, preserved in the State Archive of Ancona, an exceptionally interesting discovery since it represents one of the oldest manuscripts of its kind identified to date; B) a fragmentary tablature for Spanish guitar, datable around the middle of the xvii century, traced on the parchment cover boards of an older printed legal volume and preserved in the 'Mozzi Borgetti' Municipal Library of Macerata.
After arranging the new finds in a suitable relationship with the intabulated sources already known today and existing in the Marches, or at one time connected with the region (from the well-known codex «cordiforme» of the Pesaro Biblioteca Oliveriana to the scattered fragments for lute attributable to the painter Gerardo Cibo of Cingoli; from the two manuscripts of the Municipal Library of Jesi, formerly belonging to the local noble family Planetti, to the collection for Spanish guitar in the private library of the Counts Olivieri-Onofri at San Ginesio), the two new sources are described in detail and discussed critically.
These two manuscript tablatures, separated from one another by nearly a century, indicate that many similar forms of musical notation must have existed during this period in a region like the Marches where literary and iconographical sources abound, demonstrating a widespread diffusion of the instruments in question, perhaps greater than any other area of Italy with the exception of capital cities like Venice, Florence, Rome and Naples.


Inizio pagina

Teresa Chirico

An unknown libretto of «La Dirindina»

Girolamo Gigli's La Dirindina, set to music by Domenico Scarlatti, was composed for production in 1715 together with the opera Ambleto but its first performance was blocked by the censorship; this prohibition did not however prevent the farce from subsequently becoming always more popular, as can be seen from the numerous versions available today. A recently discovered manuscript libretto preserved at Spoleto can be considered one of the original sources in the history of this text, as evidenced also by the title (Dirindina farsa per gl'intermedi dell'Ambleto) which indicates a still existing link between the intermezzi in question and the serious opera for which the text of Gigli was written. In addition, some linguistic overtones brings it close in particular to the Tuscan idiom, a fact which would confirm an affinity to the matrix text of the opera. The presence of several unicum variations would seem also to suggest the existence of an original version of the text from which some verses were subsequently erased or modified, never to re-appear in later versions.
The manuscript is part of a fondo formerly belonging to an aristocratic family of Spoleto, the Counts di Campello, even though the origin of many manuscripts (mostly anonymous) in this collection, which includes La Dirindina, is Roman. Some members of the di Campello family lived in Rome for many years and were intimates of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni; many works in the fondo in fact belonged to the richly endowed library of the cardinal, even if it is not yet clear how (and when) the manuscripts appeared in the library of the Counts di Campello.
Other works of Gigli are to be found in the same fondo: for instance, Il leone di Giuda ovvero Il Gioas and la Giuditta; the same hand that wrote the farce appears in other musical texts.
The presence of La Dirindina in this fondo demonstrates yet again the curiosity aroused by this short opera at its time and the fact that its diffusion was clearly prior to the first performance.


Inizio pagina

Giuseppina Mascari

The «Corriere delle Dame». Scrutiny and indexes of musical information (1804-1818)

The «Corriere delle Dame» first appeared in 1804, in Milan, as a periodical featuring articles on «the literature, theatre and fashions of France and Italy», and continued to be published without any interruption up to July 1875 – that is, spanning almost the whole nineteenth century. Given the long life of the publication, it was necessary to limit the initial phase of research to the analysis of the musical news items published in the first fifteen years (1804-1818), the period during which the «Corriere delle Dame» was founded, directed and (to a great extent) written by Carolina Arienti, the wife of Giuseppe Lattanzi.
During these years the periodical, which came out every Saturday, had eight pages and a fairly invariable layout with regard to articles and features: the first four pages were devoted to stories and poems, letters, moral aphorisms, brief medical notes, observations on various subjects; ample space was also reserved for theatrical criticism: the feature «Theatres» (almost always present) occupied the fifth and sixth pages, followed by that of «Fashion» and «The Political Thermometer». From 1812, the first pages were dedicated to reviewing theatrical performances.
For the first two years the articles on music were limited to reviews of the performances given in Milan theatres, but already in June 1806 an excerpt from a letter from Trieste was published containing some observations on Niccolò Giuliani's opera Armiro e Daura which had been given there. After a time, these occasional reports on performances in other cities became more frequent (either extracts from letters or articles picked up from other newspapers). The articles on music contained in the weekly magazine during the period under consideration are not usually signed, but many details give us the impression that they were written by Carolina Lattanzi herself who frequently, in reviewing Milan performances, refers to the criticisms carried by the other two periodicals of the city, the «Giornale Italiano» and the «Corriere Milanese», underlining her desire to give in the pages of her paper her own impartial judgement. Analysis of the musical articles appearing in the «Corriere delle Dame» during the period 1804-1818 is consequently extremely enlightening, since it gives us a contemporary picture of the first twenty years of the nineteenth century: in addition to information on performers, singers and ballet dancers we frequently find many observations on librettos and librettists as well as notices on the music, the composers and the scene designers.
The work of sorting out the musical information has been completed by three appendices, which represent a highly useful research tool. Appendix 1 includes the Spoglio delle notizie musicali contenute nel «Corriere delle Dame» negli anni 1804-1818: that is, the selection of some of the more significant articles on music appearing in the periodical. Appendix 2 - Catalogo cronologico delle notizie - lists in chronological order all the numbers of the «Corriere delle Dame» which contain news of musical interest. Appendix 3 instead contains three indexes: a) Indice dei nomi, b) Indice delle opere e dei balli, c) Indice dei luoghi teatrali giving, respectively, names, titles of operas and ballets, and theatres which appear in the musical notices of the «Corriere delle Dame». The indexes refer to all the musical notices which appeared between 1804 and 1818 and not just to those quoted in the initial selection.


Inizio pagina

Rosy Moffa

Compositions for voice and piano in the manuscript fondi of the 'Giuseppe Verdi' Conservatory of Turin

The library of the 'Giuseppe Verdi' Conservatory of Turin possesses more than 4000 manuscripts, partly distributed in several historical fondi that go back to the second half of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth (Fondo Savoia, Fondo Margaria, in addition to the manuscripts already in the possession of the Liceo Musicale) and in most cases acquired after 1935 (the year when the institute became a conservatory) through legacies and donations from Piedmontese composers and their heirs. It was decided to start by examining and cataloguing the compositions for voice and piano: a genre which, since it is often linked/associated with private soirées and always with poetic production, reflects more explicitly than any other genre the cultural milieu in which it originates.
As the introduction points out, the period of the compositions taken into consideration covers more than a century, from the second half of the nineteenth century (Luigi Felice Rossi and Stefano Tempia, in addition to the non-Piedmontese composers Filippo Troisi, Filippo Marchetti and Edoardo Vera, all included in the Fondo Savoia) up to the second post-war period (Carlo Mosso). The greater part of the manuscripts, however, can be collocated between the beginning of the twentieth century and the Fifties. Gaetano Foschini, Giovanni Bolzoni, Enrico Contessa, Federico Collino are the most important names of the early twentieth century, without however forgetting Leone Sinigaglia: not only the lyrics of his younger years set to Italian, French and German texts have been taken into consideration, but also the autographs of published collections of old popular songs of Piedmont. Among others, the following stand out in the period between the two wars: Ettore Desderi, Luigi Perrachio, Giulio Cesare Gedda, figures who played an important role in general in the cultural life of Turin and in whose works a significant evolution of the harmonic language (in a moderately modern sense) can be found. Of the same time is Giorgio Federico Ghedini whose fondo of manuscript lyrics is one of the most important, with over a hundred autographs, including also unpublished and unknown compositions.
A section has been added to the introduction with brief biographies of Piedmontese composers and bibliographical cross-references.
The second part of the work contains 548 entries relative to single compositions or collections, arranged by author and title, with textual incipits, datings and other information gathered from the manuscripts.

 

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