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Fonti Musicali Italiane, 8 (2003)

Inserito in Fonti Musicali Italiane

Sommario

  • Licia Sirch, Aspetti dell'editoria musicale bresciana dopo il Concilio di Trento. Abstract.
  • Lorenzo Mattei, Metastasio con il berretto frigio. Sui Veri amici repubblicani di Niccolò Zingarelli (Torino 1799). Abstract.
  • Carmela Bongiovanni, Ancora sulle fonti della musica vocale da camera di Ferdinando Paër: appendice di integrazioni e correzioni. Abstract.
  • Giuliano Castellani, Osservazioni sulle fonti della musica vocale da camera di Ferdinando Paër. Abstract.
  • Chiara Cirilli, "Giovanna d’Arco" di Gaetano Rossi e Nicola Vaccaj: genesi e ricezione dell’opera, fonti testuali e musicali. Abstract.
  • Oreste Palmiero, Un episodio di storia della tipografia musicale in Italia: il musicografo Ferretto. Abstract.
  • Rosanna Peciccia, La Bibliografia on-line delle «Fonti Musicali Italiane». Abstract.
  • Rassegna bibliografica 2001-2002, a cura di C. Bongiovanni.
  • Abstracts

Abstract

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Licia Sirch

Music publishing at Brescia after the Council of Trent

Music publishing initiatives at Brescia during the sixteenth century were short-lived (from 1579 to 1588, with some minor offshoots in the seventeenth century), but they were clearly symptomatic of a critical moment in the history of Italian music publishing at that time. In this paper the subject is examined with reference to historical and cultural conditions in Lombardy after the Council of Trent, bearing in mind present-day historical and musicological research trends which tend to view in a different light the steps taken by the Archbishop of Milan, Carlo Borromeo with regard to publishing houses in general and the production of church music in particular, each considered as formidable instruments (together with morality plays) for promoting sacred, spiritual and moral values and participation in the ideal project of the so-called Catholic Counter-Reformation.
The paper then analyses synthetically the production of music publishing in Milan before 1576, paying particular attention to the document 1-Mb, Musica B 39, a Milanese miscellany of spiritual lauds, in part manuscript and in part published at Milan in 1576, which clearly illustrates the different climate and 'renovated' role of music – that of delectare iuvando et docendo – but which, at the same time, marks a slack moment in Milanese music publishing, a moment which continued up to 1585. It was during these years of silence that the music publishing of Brescia had the opportunity to make a name for itself.
During this period, the Borromeo reform was in full swing with a massive production of books at Milan and Brescia, the last-named city being renowned for its typographical traditions and enjoying a favourable situation arising from economic and jurisdictional motives: in fact, forming part on the one hand of the ecclesiastical province of Milan and on the other of the Venetian domain, it had the advantage of both the rich commissions of Milan and the more liberal policy of the 'Serenissima'.
The three printers of music in Brescia (Vincenzo Sabbio, Tommaso Bozzola and Pietro Maria Marchetti, who formed a partnership in 1595 as the Compagnia editoriale bresciana) were members of the most established and successful families of local printers. It can be seen from analysis of the musical production (approximately 40 publications, excluding liturgical books) that the repertoire on the whole is religious and of authors who were either natives of Brescia or worked there; there are also reprints of 'famous' Brescian composers (Giovanni Contino and Teodoro Riccio) who brought prestige and more dependable 'profits'; among the more influential musicians figure Vincenzo Ruffo, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Giovanni Matteo Asola, whose style was considered in perfect keeping with the precepts of the Council and the directives of Borromeo on church music; in addition there were some editions realized on commission for Milan and Cremona booksellers.
Further more profound reasons for the rise of the Brescia phenomenon are to be found in the letters prefacing the editions, which show that the initiative of printing music was originally taken by some local musicians (Placido Falconio, Costanzo Antegnati and Germano Pallavicino) who imported the characters used in printing music from Venice, conscious of the importance of printed music as a means of diffusion of a music that was held to be a medium of spirituality. To handle the many commissions and sales, the best-equipped local printing-house made available its facilities and means of distribution, also thanks to the greater liberty which the city in those years enjoyed in comparison to Milan.
In the context of the historical development of music publishing in Lombardy, and in Italy in general, after the Council, the role of the Brescia publishing houses can be defined as originating from those local musicians and composers belonging to the first post-Council generation, in whose work the first results of the Borromeo reform are already evident.
A list of sixteenth-century music editions is given in appendix to this paper.


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Lorenzo Mattei

Metastasio with the Phrygian cap. On «I veri amici repubblicani» of Niccolò Zingarelli (Turin 1799)]

The accidental discovery, in the library of the «L. Cherubini» Conservatory, of the score (incomplete) of Zingarelli's Veri amici repubblicani has made it possible to examine the setting to music of a poetic text involved with revolutionary ideals and frequently quoted by scholars as an example of the 'transformism' to which the themes of serious opera were subjected in the period between Ancien régime and Revolution. As far as the stylistic layout of the libretto is concerned, it can be observed how the changed textual content still follows the Metastasian model which was congenial to rendering homage to both the French army and the forces of the Restoration. The music too does not respond to the stimulus of a text crammed with apologies of Jacobin and libertarian ideals with the adoption of stylistic features characteristic of revolutionary music; on the contrary, it remains centred on the abstract belcanto feature (employing the voices of two castratos for the male protagonists) and on the quest for a more sophisticated relationship between voice and orchestral accompaniment. The facile melodizing of Zingarelli becomes truly expressive by settling on the well-proven forms congenial to the traditionalist audiences of Turin.
Since nearly all the music of the serious operas explicitly composed in homage to the Revolutionary troops is not to be found, I veri amici repubblicani assumes considerable importance: the opera represents the tessera of a mosaic illustrating a clear 'divorce' between the 'revolutionary' contents of the librettos and their realization in music.


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Carmela Bongiovanni

More information on the sources of Ferdinando Paër's vocal chamber music: an appendix of integration and correction

New musical sources, discovered in several important European libraries and pertaining to the immense production of vocal chamber music by Ferdinando Paër (1771-1839), contribute to affirming the importance of Paër above all in the field of composition of brief romances. It is in fact the production (in French) of the period of his permanence at Paris which is given a contribution of significance by this inventory. On the other hand, if the surviving published musical sources give the exact measure of the mass of compositions which the composer from Parma undertook at Paris, a scrutiny of the daily French newspapers of the first thirty years of the nineteenth century (extremely difficult owing to the multitude of pages to be examined) serves to show how many of the vocal compositions of Paër remain unknown (or at least have to be elucidated in relation to the surviving musical sources) and how many versions similar short pieces may have incurred as far as instrumentation and performance practice are concerned.
An example is given by the following notice in the «Journal de l'Empire» of 12 April 1812, announcing the programme of a concert at the Conservatoire Impérial de Musique in Paris: the various compositions (a medley of authors and vocal and instrumental genres typical of the period) include a «Polonaise de M. Paer, chanté par M. [Louis Antoine Éléonore] Ponchard, avec accompagnement obligé de violoncello exécuté par M. (Louis) Norblin». There is no record – up to now – in musical sources of a vocal polonaise by Paër with cello obbligato (there are indeed two polonaises, but not with that instrumentation – the theatrical works are naturally excluded); this testimony further increases our knowledge of Paër's vocal compositions. Other data, always gathered from French dailies, contribute to give a more precise chronology of the editions of already known pieces: for instance, O notte soave, serenata a quattro voci con accompagnamento d'arpa o Piano-forte, corno, violoncello e Contro-Basso. The Paris, Imbault [1807-1811] edition, already indicated in the previous inventory, can be given a positive dating of 1811 in the light of two notices in the «Journal de l'Empire» of 9 July and 9 August 1811. Indeed, the second notice also specifies that the author of the verses of the composition is M. Moline. An interesting point in these two notices is the significant variation in the title compared to the known musical sources: harp and piano are not interchangeable (as indicated on the frontispiece of the edition) but are included side by side in the instrumentation.


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Giuliano Castellani

Comments on the sources of Ferdinando Paër's vocal chamber music and cantatas

This paper originated as a brief appendix to Carmela Bongiovanni's ample catalogue of the sources (printed and manuscript) of Ferdinando Paër's vocal chamber music which was included in the 2001 and 2003 numbers of «Fonti Musicali Italiane». First of all, various direct affirmations are cited on Paër's Parisian activities as composer of vocal chamber music, singer and maître de chapelle; during the Twenties and Thirties of the nineteenth century in fact the leading music periodicals of Paris, together with several important critics and musicians (such as Castil-Blaze and Jean-Georges Kastner), already indicated Paër as one of the major exponents of the French romance. Paër, however, was not only a composer but also an excellent performer of vocal chamber music: there are numerous descriptions of his performances at the Imperial Court, where he accompanied his bass-baritone voice at the piano singing the most amusing pieces from the comic repertoire for the entertainment of Napoleon. In addition, he was one of the most prestigious teachers of singing in Paris: this is even further proved by the publication of his important didactic works, such as xxiv Exercices pour voix de soprano ou de ténor and Trente-six vocalises pour voix de basse-taille ou baryton; by the names of some of the singers who trained or specialized with him – Giuditta Pasta, Joséphine de Méric, Francilla Pixis; finally, by his nomination in September 1831 as «Inspecteur de l'instruction et du chant» at the Conservatory of the French capital. Subsequently, the integrations and additions to the catalogue of sources compiled by Bongiovanni are presented: a preliminary scrutiny of musical sources carried out at various archives and libraries in fact permits the descriptions to be completed of, for example, the romances entitled La confession and Le refus; it has also been possible to determine with precision the period of composition and publication of the romance La première déclaration, and even to reconstruct the circumstances underlying the birth of the piece; again, new documents are of assistance in gauging the exact date of the first performance of the cantata Diana ed Endimione; in the case of Saffo, instead, it is an unpublished letter from Paër himself which suggests the possible dating of the cantata; finally, the music comes to light of two hitherto unknown Paer cantatas: La famiglia filarmonica and Ulisse e Penelope.


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Chiara Cirilli

«Giovanna d'Arco» by Gaetano Rossi and Nicola Vaccaj: origin and reception of the opera, sources of text and music

The paper offers a contribution to the standing of two significant figures in Italian music theatre of the early nineteenth century, the composer Nicola Vaccaj (Tolentino, 1790 – Pesaro, 1848) and the librettist Gaetano Rossi (Verona, 1774 – 1855), through the study of the romantic opera Giovanna d'Arco.
Thanks to documentation to be found in the Biblioteca Filelfica of Tolentino (Macerata) relative to the years 1826-28, it has been possible to reconstruct the events connected to the drafting of the libretto, to the performances of the opera – in particular, the first performance at Teatro La Fenice, Venice in 1827 and its revival at Teatro San Carlo, Naples in 1828 – and to its reception by public and critics. From correspondence between Rossi and Vaccaj it is possible to retrace the various stages through which the composition of the libretto passed: from the first version – inspired by the French tragedy of C.J. Loeuillard d'Avrigny, Jeanne d'Arc à Rouen, which was refused by the composer – to the second and final version – inspired by the tragedy of F. Schiller, La pulzella d'Orléans. The letters containing the two scenarios are given in full in the Appendix.
The correspondence between Nicola Vaccaj and his Venetian friend Girolamo Viezzoli adds to the information available on the drafting of the libretto and reconstructs in detail the ups and downs relative to the Neapolitan production of the opera in 1828. The musical sources so far available, both manuscript and printed, are then examined: an autograph and two copies, six printed excerpts and two librettos. Analysis and comparison of the musical sources and librettos evidences how the opera underwent substantial changes on the occasion of the Neapolitan production of 1828 – entire scenes cut, massive modifications to the vocal cast, introduction of the happy ending – changes imposed by the impresario Barbaja and by the regulations of the Teatro San Carlo, and unwillingly carried out by the composer. The lack of direct musical sources on the third and last performance of Giovanna d'Arco at Palermo's Teatro Carolino in 1830 debars an in-depth analysis of the nature of the production; it can however be assumed, from a review of the time, that the opera proposed at the Carolino contained elements from both first and second versions.


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Oreste Palmiero

An episode in the history of music printing in Italy: Ferretto's «musicografo»

The paper proposes to bring to light the innovative but unfortunate attempt of Andrea Ferretto (Barbarano Vic., 1864 – ibidem, 1942), a musician from Vicenza, who at the beginning of the last century designed a specific machine for writing music in an attempt to solve an age-old problem that had already baffled several generations of enthusiastic inventors.
The «musicografo» – as he called the ingenious device, apparently similar to an ordinary typewriter – was able, in addition to reproducing on the stave with great clarity notes, eventual text and a variety of graphic signs, also to transpose directly a piece of music in any key – thus simplifying considerably the work of the copyist.
Exhibited with success on various occasions, the machine – thanks above all to the simplicity of use and to the proven manageability – received favourable notices also beyond the national frontiers, as can also be seen in the wealth of technical reviews attached to this paper. Nevertheless, notwithstanding the unflagging efforts of its creator and the unconditional support of the Fascist governmental authorities, the «musicografo» did not succeed in catching on – due perhaps to persistent stonewalling by the publishing world – and so ended its days lying abandoned in the workshop of its unfortunate inventor.


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Rosanna Peciccia

The on-line bibliography of «Fonti Musicali Italiane»

Bibliographic research has always been the starting point for all types of investigation, carried out with scientific criteria. The recent development of Internet has in point of fact opened up new prospects for the bibliographic discipline which today can avail itself of tools for an always more accurate and sophisticated research. The convergence between information technology and humanistic disciplines, already underway in the past, now tends towards the processing and presentation of structured data and the coding of texts in electronic version. The more significant developments of research in this direction include the markup languages conceived and developed for the structured presentation of all types of document.
The paper starts with a brief survey of the markup languages, from the original version SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) up to the recent XML (Extensible Markup Language) and above all to their application in the area of text processing systems. Analysis of the technical characteristics of the language evidences its potentiality in various areas of research, including the processing of bibliographic lists. Thanks to a target programme, XML makes it possible to codify in electronic version any type whatsoever of bibliography and subsequently to publish it on Internet together with the mentioned interrogation procedures.
In this way, the choice of XML as a 'translation' code of the Rassegne Bibliografiche edited by «Fonti Musicali Italiane» is placed in an explicit setting, as well as the following detailed description of the entire project. The fundamental logic underlying the project Bibliografia delle Fonti Musicali Italiane on-line is that of creating a tool which is at the same time intuitively structured and sufficiently descriptive. The various stages, first of the programming and subsequently of the realization, verification and research, are described in the course of this paper and are completed with examples which illustrate, in order, the original references in paper form, parts of the edited XML code and results of polling the Rassegne on the web site of the Società Italiana di Musicologia.

 

Fonti Musicali Italiane, 7 (2002)

Inserito in Fonti Musicali Italiane

Sommario

  • Dinko Fabris – Paolo Peretti, Nuove fonti marchigiane in intavolatura per strumenti a corde pizzicate (secc. XVI-XVII), pp. 7-17. Abstract.
  • Teresa Chirico, Uno sconosciuto libretto della Dirindina di Girolamo Gigli, pp. 19-29. Abstract.
  • Giuseppina Mascari, Il «Corriere delle dame». Spoglio e indici delle notizie musicali (1804-1818), pp. 31-126. Abstract.
  • Rosy Moffa, Le composizioni per voce e pianoforte nei fondi manoscritti del Conservatorio «Giuseppe Verdi» di Torino, pp. 127-236. Abstract.
  • Rassegna bibliografica, a cura di Carmela Bongiovanni, pp. 237-315.

Abstract

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Dinko Fabris – Paolo Peretti

New sources from the Marches of tablatures for plucked string instruments – XVI and XVII centuries

The paper presents two rare new sources of instrumental music discovered in the Marches, a region which in the past few years has been the seat of extremely important archival-musical finds, from manuscript fragments of ars nova music between the xiv and xv centuries to parts of a hitherto unknown musical work printed by Ottaviano Petrucci. In this particular instance, the new sources are two manuscript tablatures for plucked instruments, more precisly: A) a tablature for lute in the book of a Jesi notary for the years 1531-1533, preserved in the State Archive of Ancona, an exceptionally interesting discovery since it represents one of the oldest manuscripts of its kind identified to date; B) a fragmentary tablature for Spanish guitar, datable around the middle of the xvii century, traced on the parchment cover boards of an older printed legal volume and preserved in the 'Mozzi Borgetti' Municipal Library of Macerata.
After arranging the new finds in a suitable relationship with the intabulated sources already known today and existing in the Marches, or at one time connected with the region (from the well-known codex «cordiforme» of the Pesaro Biblioteca Oliveriana to the scattered fragments for lute attributable to the painter Gerardo Cibo of Cingoli; from the two manuscripts of the Municipal Library of Jesi, formerly belonging to the local noble family Planetti, to the collection for Spanish guitar in the private library of the Counts Olivieri-Onofri at San Ginesio), the two new sources are described in detail and discussed critically.
These two manuscript tablatures, separated from one another by nearly a century, indicate that many similar forms of musical notation must have existed during this period in a region like the Marches where literary and iconographical sources abound, demonstrating a widespread diffusion of the instruments in question, perhaps greater than any other area of Italy with the exception of capital cities like Venice, Florence, Rome and Naples.


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Teresa Chirico

An unknown libretto of «La Dirindina»

Girolamo Gigli's La Dirindina, set to music by Domenico Scarlatti, was composed for production in 1715 together with the opera Ambleto but its first performance was blocked by the censorship; this prohibition did not however prevent the farce from subsequently becoming always more popular, as can be seen from the numerous versions available today. A recently discovered manuscript libretto preserved at Spoleto can be considered one of the original sources in the history of this text, as evidenced also by the title (Dirindina farsa per gl'intermedi dell'Ambleto) which indicates a still existing link between the intermezzi in question and the serious opera for which the text of Gigli was written. In addition, some linguistic overtones brings it close in particular to the Tuscan idiom, a fact which would confirm an affinity to the matrix text of the opera. The presence of several unicum variations would seem also to suggest the existence of an original version of the text from which some verses were subsequently erased or modified, never to re-appear in later versions.
The manuscript is part of a fondo formerly belonging to an aristocratic family of Spoleto, the Counts di Campello, even though the origin of many manuscripts (mostly anonymous) in this collection, which includes La Dirindina, is Roman. Some members of the di Campello family lived in Rome for many years and were intimates of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni; many works in the fondo in fact belonged to the richly endowed library of the cardinal, even if it is not yet clear how (and when) the manuscripts appeared in the library of the Counts di Campello.
Other works of Gigli are to be found in the same fondo: for instance, Il leone di Giuda ovvero Il Gioas and la Giuditta; the same hand that wrote the farce appears in other musical texts.
The presence of La Dirindina in this fondo demonstrates yet again the curiosity aroused by this short opera at its time and the fact that its diffusion was clearly prior to the first performance.


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Giuseppina Mascari

The «Corriere delle Dame». Scrutiny and indexes of musical information (1804-1818)

The «Corriere delle Dame» first appeared in 1804, in Milan, as a periodical featuring articles on «the literature, theatre and fashions of France and Italy», and continued to be published without any interruption up to July 1875 – that is, spanning almost the whole nineteenth century. Given the long life of the publication, it was necessary to limit the initial phase of research to the analysis of the musical news items published in the first fifteen years (1804-1818), the period during which the «Corriere delle Dame» was founded, directed and (to a great extent) written by Carolina Arienti, the wife of Giuseppe Lattanzi.
During these years the periodical, which came out every Saturday, had eight pages and a fairly invariable layout with regard to articles and features: the first four pages were devoted to stories and poems, letters, moral aphorisms, brief medical notes, observations on various subjects; ample space was also reserved for theatrical criticism: the feature «Theatres» (almost always present) occupied the fifth and sixth pages, followed by that of «Fashion» and «The Political Thermometer». From 1812, the first pages were dedicated to reviewing theatrical performances.
For the first two years the articles on music were limited to reviews of the performances given in Milan theatres, but already in June 1806 an excerpt from a letter from Trieste was published containing some observations on Niccolò Giuliani's opera Armiro e Daura which had been given there. After a time, these occasional reports on performances in other cities became more frequent (either extracts from letters or articles picked up from other newspapers). The articles on music contained in the weekly magazine during the period under consideration are not usually signed, but many details give us the impression that they were written by Carolina Lattanzi herself who frequently, in reviewing Milan performances, refers to the criticisms carried by the other two periodicals of the city, the «Giornale Italiano» and the «Corriere Milanese», underlining her desire to give in the pages of her paper her own impartial judgement. Analysis of the musical articles appearing in the «Corriere delle Dame» during the period 1804-1818 is consequently extremely enlightening, since it gives us a contemporary picture of the first twenty years of the nineteenth century: in addition to information on performers, singers and ballet dancers we frequently find many observations on librettos and librettists as well as notices on the music, the composers and the scene designers.
The work of sorting out the musical information has been completed by three appendices, which represent a highly useful research tool. Appendix 1 includes the Spoglio delle notizie musicali contenute nel «Corriere delle Dame» negli anni 1804-1818: that is, the selection of some of the more significant articles on music appearing in the periodical. Appendix 2 - Catalogo cronologico delle notizie - lists in chronological order all the numbers of the «Corriere delle Dame» which contain news of musical interest. Appendix 3 instead contains three indexes: a) Indice dei nomi, b) Indice delle opere e dei balli, c) Indice dei luoghi teatrali giving, respectively, names, titles of operas and ballets, and theatres which appear in the musical notices of the «Corriere delle Dame». The indexes refer to all the musical notices which appeared between 1804 and 1818 and not just to those quoted in the initial selection.


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Rosy Moffa

Compositions for voice and piano in the manuscript fondi of the 'Giuseppe Verdi' Conservatory of Turin

The library of the 'Giuseppe Verdi' Conservatory of Turin possesses more than 4000 manuscripts, partly distributed in several historical fondi that go back to the second half of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth (Fondo Savoia, Fondo Margaria, in addition to the manuscripts already in the possession of the Liceo Musicale) and in most cases acquired after 1935 (the year when the institute became a conservatory) through legacies and donations from Piedmontese composers and their heirs. It was decided to start by examining and cataloguing the compositions for voice and piano: a genre which, since it is often linked/associated with private soirées and always with poetic production, reflects more explicitly than any other genre the cultural milieu in which it originates.
As the introduction points out, the period of the compositions taken into consideration covers more than a century, from the second half of the nineteenth century (Luigi Felice Rossi and Stefano Tempia, in addition to the non-Piedmontese composers Filippo Troisi, Filippo Marchetti and Edoardo Vera, all included in the Fondo Savoia) up to the second post-war period (Carlo Mosso). The greater part of the manuscripts, however, can be collocated between the beginning of the twentieth century and the Fifties. Gaetano Foschini, Giovanni Bolzoni, Enrico Contessa, Federico Collino are the most important names of the early twentieth century, without however forgetting Leone Sinigaglia: not only the lyrics of his younger years set to Italian, French and German texts have been taken into consideration, but also the autographs of published collections of old popular songs of Piedmont. Among others, the following stand out in the period between the two wars: Ettore Desderi, Luigi Perrachio, Giulio Cesare Gedda, figures who played an important role in general in the cultural life of Turin and in whose works a significant evolution of the harmonic language (in a moderately modern sense) can be found. Of the same time is Giorgio Federico Ghedini whose fondo of manuscript lyrics is one of the most important, with over a hundred autographs, including also unpublished and unknown compositions.
A section has been added to the introduction with brief biographies of Piedmontese composers and bibliographical cross-references.
The second part of the work contains 548 entries relative to single compositions or collections, arranged by author and title, with textual incipits, datings and other information gathered from the manuscripts.

 

Fonti Musicali Italiane, 6 (2001)

Inserito in Fonti Musicali Italiane

Sommario

  • Maria Teresa Dellaborra, Il sacro sconosciuto: inediti sammartiniani a Vimercate, pp. 7-19. Abstract.
  • Carmela Bongiovanni, Le fonti della musica vocale da camera di Ferdinando Paer, pp. 21-104. Abstract.
  • Claudio Toscani, Una nuova acquisizione belliniana: fonti sconosciute per Adelson e Salvini, pp. 105-117. Abstract.
  • Antonia Ianne, Le risorse Internet per la musicologia: strategie di ricerca e criteri di valutazione, pp. 119-143. Abstract.
  • Valentina Mirella Marangi, Verso un thesaurus in materia di legislazione sui beni e le attività musicali: proposte di integrazione al TEsauro SEnato per l'Organizzazione dei documenti parlamentari, pp. 145-159. Abstract.
  • Rassegna bibliografica 1999-2000, a cura di Carmela Bongiovanni, pp. 161-243.

Abstract

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Maria Teresa Dellaborra

The unknown sacred: unpublished Sammartiniana at Vimercate

Three unknown pieces by Giovanni Battista Sammartini, discovered among the music preserved in the parish archives, provide the occasion for an analysis of musical life at Vimercate in the eighteenth century. Obvious, or implicit, connections between the two realities emerge from a comparison of this milieu with contemporary culture in Milan and are sufficient at any rate to confirm not only the tangible presence in Vimercate of celebrated Milanese musicians – Gaetano and Felice Piazza (pupils of Sammartini), Giovan Battista Fiamenghino, Marco Eugenio Villani, Giuseppe Antonio Borone, all members of the ducal orchestra – but also that of an undoubtedly precious repertoire of composers in vogue (Johann Christian Bach, Giovanni Andrea Fioroni, Giovanni Battista Lampugnani, Melchiorre Chiesa, Giuseppe Paladino, Carlo Monza) strictly in the “concertato con stromenti” style and at times expressly conceived for the “Schola della Beata Vergine del Rosario”. The figure of Giovanni Battista Sammartini illuminates this situation – with the function of trait d'union – whose three unpublished scores examined in the course of this paper (Dixit dominus in F, for four voices and orchestra; Laudate pueri in D for soprano, contralto and orchestra; Duci cruento in F, for four voices and organ, a hymn specifically dedicated to St. Stephen, the patron saint of Vimercate), as well as a fourth (Litanie lauretane, already cited by Jenkins and Churgin), enrich this already considerable catalogue and at the same time confirm the intentional and characteristic stylistic stances of the composer.


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Carmela Bongiovanni

The sources of Ferdinando Paër's vocal chamber music

The musical works of Ferdinando Paër (1771-1839) – a musician who was as fortunate during his lifetime as he is strangely little known today – presents numerous obscure aspects. A complete list of his theatrical works does not exist even in the field of opera: it is not surprising therefore that one of the minor “genres” par excellence with the Italian musicians straddling the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries – that is, vocal chamber music – is represented by a very substantial group of extremely varied compositions, conceived and composed by Ferdinando Paër in compliance with different conditions and audiences in Europe.
This is proved by the various languages Paër uses for his texts (mainly Italian and French, but also German and even Polish), the different arrangement of the musical intricacies confronted in his compositions (from the simple expressive strophic melody in perfect symbiosis with the characteristics of the French romance of the early nineteenth century to the lively highly ornamented air of Italian origin, with a thousand astonishing shadings between the two extremes), the multiplicity of musical forms employed, and the exceptionally wide dissemination of the great number of scores, a certain sign of success. A fundamentally immense and heterogeneous repertoire, in no way marginal in Paër's production, in which can be seen a notable range of creations (in addition to an undoubted diversity in quality), poised between customary music and works of art: an historical examination is necessary in order to arrive at a more accurate comprehension of the milieu and the users for which it was created. The article includes, in addition to an in-depth historical-critical introduction, a list of sources, accompanied by an index of names and textual incipit.


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Claudio Toscani

A new Belliniana acquisition: hitherto unknown sources for Adelson e Salvini

The Fondo Mascarello, recently acquired by the Milan Conservatory Library, contains important sources –hitherto unknown – for Adelson e Salvini, the opera with which Bellini in 1825 said goodbye to the Naples Conservatory at the termination of his studies. The Fondo includes a complete group of separate instrumental parts (some autograph) taken from the score of the first version of the opera. Since the original score, preserved at Catania, is incomplete, the new sources make it possible to ascertain the extent of the lacunae in the autograph manuscript, to establish the exact sequence of the numbers, to reconstruct the missing sections. The Fondo Mascarello also contains seven excerpts from the autograph score of the second version of Adelson e Salvini, prepared by Bellini in 1826 (or in 1827) for a production at the Teatro del Fondo in Naples, which however was never staged. Only a few fragments of this score were known to date: the new sources in fact permit the almost total completion of the original score and the accurate definition of the entity and nature of Bellini's reworking of the first version of the opera.


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Antonia Alberta Ianne

Internet resources for musicology: search strategies and assessment criteria

The problem of identifying and selecting sources is one of the main obstacles to the use of Internet for study and research. In fact the extreme heterogeneity of the nature of web resources, associated with the absence of dependable resource locator tools, creates increasing difficulties for the musicologist in finding sources that are capable of meeting his specific information requirements.
The article analyses the problems connected with searching on Internet, examines the principal typologies of tools for finding information and assesses their applicability to musicology. Finally, the possibility is investigated of adapting traditional methodologies to the use of telematic tools. This last-mentioned point will be developed with particular attention to assessment criteria.
Currently, the most widespread access tools to web resources are the lists of links. The information, however, is frequently selected and structured according to unsystematic criteria and categories. Links are extremely useful tools for accessing qualified resources, even if they cannot be considered authentic indexes of electronic resources. Subject gateways are another access system; these are a more sophisticated type of search tool, the equivalent of the OPAC for on-line publications. They are organized on the basis of data and the description of the resource is usually accompanied by a review or a comment. Since subject gateways do not at present exist for musicology, the musicologist must turn to those dedicated to humanistic disciplines or to the performing arts. Another typology of tools is the lase (Limited Area Search Engine); these are search engines which scan only a certain number of sites dedicated to a discipline or to a disciplinary sector. The basic concept of the lase is that of cooperation between certain specialist sites. Tools of this kind do not yet exist for musicology. This would be the solution for more rapid realization, but it is necessary to establish collaborative relations and to define standard selection criteria.
Another problem connected with use of the web is that of information quality. The major part of the resources in fact are published without reliable control and selection procedures. The prospect of a systematic use of Internet for research activities has given rise to the need for developing criteria for the selection of resources already present on the web and for drawing up rules for creating web pages. Closely linked to the theme of value assessment is the problem relative to the scientific worth of web publications. The most significant contributions to value assessment to date have come from librarians and satisfy, for the most part, the practical purpose of assisting the user during a search. Debates on the subject have only recently been initiated in specific disciplinary sections. The prevailing trend has been that of estimating the applicability of the checklists already adopted for hard copy sources to the selection of on-line publications, in particular to reference sources. Analysis of the checklists has resulted in the discovery that the subjects of major interest in value assessment in telematics concern principally the formal aspects of the resource: that is, structure, utilization, stability, updating possibilities. Minor problems, instead, would seem to be connected with the analysis of content, which remains linked to verification of the requirements demanded by any work of scientific research: originality and innovativeness, methodological strictness, congruence with the discipline, thoroughness.


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Valentina Mirella Marangi

Towards a thesaurus concerning legislation on musical assets and activities: proposed integration with the TEsauro SEnato per l'Organizzazione dei documenti parlamentari

The article focuses on the lexical and terminological study of juridical texts dealing with music as an opportunity for developing the relationship between musicology and juridical sciences; it is in fact considered that the consolidation of a common ground of investigation between the two disciplines, can contribute to a more extensive and detailed knowledge on the part of the legislator of our musical heritage and therefore influence significantly the decisions taken at institutional level.
The lack of autonomy and the notable disjointedness of legislation affecting music reflect, in a sense, the situation of the entire juridical system in Italy whose overloaded dimensions considerably limit comprehension of the rules and regulations as well as endangering the principle of the certainty of the Law. Given this complex situation, the juridical sciences have viewed favourably information technology for the advantages it offers both for comprehension of the laws and for improvement of the legislation. The most important acquisitions regarding the recovery, transference and processing of juridical information by means of digital tools are examined here, starting from the first institutional data banks programmed at the end of the Sixties and arriving at the actual – and always increasing – availability of information resources made possible by the advent of the information society and telematic networks.
Since it is held that the study of the legislative language relative to musical assets and activities can contribute to a better knowledge of the laws and to an improvement of the legislation, some possible realizations are proposed, useful not only at the stage of drafting the law but also at that of processing the juridical text and at that of recovering juridical information.
As a relevant example, the results of a textual analysis are given which was carried out on legislative texts concerning musical assets and activities and enacted between 1998 and 2001; in fact the hypothesis is formulated according to which the state of completeness of regulations relative to musical assets and activities can be determined starting from the quantity and variety of musical items and events identified and recognized by the juridical lexicon. The musical terms present in legislative texts have also been compared with their descriptors in the musical section of TESEO (Tesauro Senato per l'Organizzazione dei documenti parlamentari) in order to determine the comprehensiveness of the descriptors of TESEO in relation to the musical entities recognized by legislation as well as, in a wider perspective, to the musical reality. The considerations relative to the different degree of detail of the areas covered by TESEO and the recognition of the meagre analyticity of those inherent to music have led to consider advantageous the proposal of integrating the thesaurus of the Senate with new terms in the field of music.

 

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