- Angelo Rusconi, Teoria musicale e teorici italiani nel Medioevo. Studi, ricerche, edizioni 1988-2000, pp. 7-42. Abstract.
- Maria Teresa Di Lorenzo, Le pergamente liturgico-musicali dell'Archivio di Stato e i codici della Biblioteca Arcivescovile di Matera, pp. 43-76. Abstract.
- Rodolfo Baroncini, Voci e strumenti nella 'processione in piazza San Marco': considerazioni metodologiche in margine a un celebre dipinto di Gentile Bellini, pp. 77-88. Abstract.
- Piero Gargiulo, Prime intonazioni di un testo guariniano: il caso di "Occhi miei che vedeste" (1574-1587), pp. 89-96. Abstract.
- Rosa Cafiero, Le edizioni musicali Clausetti: 1847-1864, pp. 97-248. Abstract.
- Silvia Arena, L'archivio della casa editrice Giudici & Strada presso il Conservatorio 'Nicolini' di Piacenza. Abstract.
- Rassegna bibliografica 1998-99, a cura di Carmela Bongiovanni.
Italian Musical Theory and Theorists in the Middle Ages.
Studies, research, editions 1988-2000
This general survey starts from 1988, the year of publication on "Acta Musicologica" of the bibliographic review edited by Michel Huglo, Bibliographie des éditions et études relatives à la théorie musicale du Moyen Age (1972-1987), and concludes with the year 2000 which saw the revival of studies on medieval theory, stimulated by the conventional millenary celebrations of Guido d’Arezzo. Late-antique authors have been included in the bibliography, while the figure of Franchino Gaffurio has seemed a suitable conventional reference point for concluding the medieval period. The survey reviews critically the articles and papers published during the period in question and is divided into the following sixteen sections: 1. Bibliographies and electronic aids; 2. Facsimile editions; 3. Individual authors; 4. Individual codices; 5. Tonaria; 6. Solmization - didactic and theoretical chants; 7. Notations; 8. Instruments and mensura monochordi; 9. Performance practice; 10. Musical iconography in theoretical treatises; 11. Sundry subjects; 12. Catalogues of manuscripts; 13. Encyclopedias and dictionaries; 14. Lexicons; 15. Conferences; 16. Various general histories of the theory. A section of Addenda is also included, followed by the indexes of: the manuscripts cited; the antique authors, personages and texts quoted; localities; scholars.
Maria Teresa Di Lorenzo
Liturgical-musical parchments in the State Archives
and codices in the Archiepiscopal Library of Matera
The majority of the fifty-two parchment fragments with musical notations in the State Archives of Matera refer to Graduals and Antiphoners datable between the XV and XVI century. They are stored in the Parchment Department in folders entitled "Fogli Kiriali". After specifying the criteria and procedures for drafting the descriptions as well as the problems associated with the identification of the chants and their liturgical attribution, the section of this article dealing with the fragments then gives a description of their contents and a reconstruction of the original pages and also provides information on the codices to which they presumably belong.
The seven liturgical-musical parchment codices preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library are Graduals and Antiphoners datable between the XV and XVI century. As in the case of the fragments, the article gives a bibliographic description of the manuscripts, specifying their liturgical-musical content and in addition providing some data relative to the dating and provenance of the codices, together with information on the copyists and on the liturgical and historical characteristics. Particular attention has been paid to drawing up a list of the chants which are present in the Matera sources and which are not available in standard reference catalogues.
Voices and instruments in the "Procession in piazza San Marco":
methodological considerations with regard to a celebrated painting of Gentile Bellini
The Procession in Piazza San Marco painted by Gentile Bellini in 1496, as part of a more extensive cycle commissioned by the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista, has been the object of some speculation on the part of music historians. In particular, the musical scene portrayed on the extreme left of the large canvas (3 "players of harp, viola and lute" and 6 "singers of lauds") has been regarded as confirmation of the hypothesis (formulated on the basis of extensive documentary material concerning the Scuole Grandi) that a vocal-instrumental practice was adopted in the liturgical and paraliturgical celebrations of the Scuole: a practice in which the instruments would have supported or accompanied the voices. Although Bellini’s painting is characterized by a tendency to veduta and verismo, there are good reasons for believing that an excessive trust has been placed in it. A first contradiction is revealed by the presence of a macroscopic detail: while the singers chant "from the book", the three instrumentalists are "improvising"; this is an evident sign of two different approaches and executive traditions, sufficient in itself to exclude any hypothesis of combined orchestration. A fact, moreover, that is completely coherent with the customary dislocation of the two groups within the cortège of the procession, as evidenced by contemporary documentation: while the instrumentalists were placed at the head of the procession (in front of the Cross), the singers were in the central part of the cortège, behind the processional litter and in front of the officers of the confraternity. It is admissible to ask, at this point, why Bellini painted the players and singers next to each other. The most likely hypothesis is that, in order to make room for who (at least in theory) was to be the principal subject of the painting (the kneeling figure of the miraculously saved Jacopo Salis, portrayed at the centre of the cortège), Bellini had - for aesthetic reasons - upset the customary order of the cortège. On the other hand, this is not the only incongruous element in the imposing view of piazza San Marco. Despite a tendency to a realistic approach, and a conspicuous concern for reproducing every detail, the artistic conception of Bellini appears to be cloaked in a veil of idealism, almost unreal and phantasmagoric, which involves the concealment of some objects for the purpose of revealing others. A process which in fact does not save even the real architectural configuration of the piazza, since the bell tower is shifted so as to make it possible to see part of the Doge’s Palace.
First intonations of a Guarini text: the case of "Occhi miei che vedeste"
The madrigal Occhi miei che vedeste,which did not appear in the Rime (1598) of Ciotti, is attributed to Guarini in the edition of his Opere (1737) edited by Tumermani who classifies it among the verses "scattered in various publications or gathered by diverse poets". Verifying its inclusion in the only 15 published texts, after a single presence in a sixteenth-century publication (the Raccolto d’alcune piacevoli rime of 1582), and also noting the undoubted interest of the 21 authors who set it to music (including Vinci, Galilei, Macque, Baccusi, Cifra, Scaletta, Nenna), a more thorough examination has led to a redetermination of the chronological order of the first intonations and to establishing specific correlations with the transmission and circulation of the poetic repertory of Guarini. Apart from the discovery of two monodic intonations of the text (not known until 1991) included in a manuscript collection (the Libro di canzoni et arie of Cosimo Bottegari, 1574) and antecedent both to the whole monodic repertory flourishing around the production of the poet and to the specific sequence of the subsequent 20 compositions realized on Occhi miei, the research has in fact made it possible to certify: first, the almost total analogy of one of the intonations in the manuscript of Bottegari (in both cases for voice and lute) with the Canto of Occhi miei published in Cristofano Malvezzi’s Madrigali a 5 voci (1583); secondly, the correspondence with a poetic source (a seventeenth-century Florentine codex) which, although presenting the text of Occhi miei as adespota, reveals its complete consistency with the lection edited by Tumermani, proposing itself as the one and only witness of manuscript transmission of the text.
To the pre-eminence of the Tuscan area can therefore be ascribed the merit of inaugurating the fortune of a text which plucks the fruits essential to the launching of its diffusion in music without availing itself of effective literary backing and which finds an almost exclusive means of flowering in the work of two composers and in the different motivations that led them to confront Occhi miei: Bottegari, in addition to increasing the success of a certain coeval secular repertory, appears to be particularly attracted by the composition, even proposing a second original intonation; Malvezzi confirms a certain propensity to appear as the first of the Medicean musicians to take possession of Guarini texts, subsequently the object of widespread attention in areas other than Tuscany. Destined in the space of fifty years to compete with other more celebrated verses, the good fortune of Occhi miei nevertheless secured Guarini an important recognition during that period of ten years (1571-1582, when official gratification was still lacking) which was decisive for the organization and revision of a literary repertory by then always more concerned with the specific exigencies of "canto soave".
Clausetti musical publications: 1847-1864
The music publishing house of the brothers Pietro and Lorenzo Clausetti was founded at Naples in 1847. In 1861 the Milanese publisher Tito Ricordi entered into partnership with the Clausetti and in August 1864 took over the Naples firm definitively, transforming it into a branch of Ricordi that was managed by Pietro Clausetti up to 1892, the year of Clausetti’s death. The Clausetti published more than 5000 items including operas transcribed for voice and piano or for piano only (among the authors: Chiaromonte, Petrella, De Giosa, Verdi, Bellini, Rossini, Donizetti, Pacini, Mercadante, Meyerbeer, Auber), arrangements, paraphrases, potpourris for piano on operatic themes and favourite motifs, compositions for piano (including Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn), dances, theoretical exercises and methods, Neapolitan songs, ballads. In this paper the catalogue of the Clausetti publishing house has been reconstructed on the basis of the two catalogues of 1852 and 1860, collated with a direct examination of a consistent part of the editions published. The catalogue presented here has been arranged - unlike the previous ones - according to the plate number; in addition to the author, title and vocal and/or instrumental complement, the series is indicated in which the edition is included, together with (where necessary) the address and name of the firm. For the purpose of providing an exact chronological placement of individual editions, the existence of notices in the Naples press is given as well as the date on which the edition was registered at the archives of the Royal College of Music of Naples.
The archive of the publishing house Giudici & Strada at the Conservatory of Piacenza
The music publishing house Giudici & Strada, founded at Turin in 1859 by G. B. Giudici and A. Strada with the acquisition of the editions published by Antonio Racca, was active in Turin up to 1893. In 1894 the firm was taken over by Antonio Demarchi, who moved the business to Milan, and in 1899 - after Demarchi’s death - by Paolo Mariani under the name of "Riuniti Stabilimenti Musicali Giudici e Strada, A. Demarchi, A. Tedeschi di P. Mariani fu Carlo". In 1909 a joint stock company was incorporated at Milan (chairman Angelo Ferrari) which took over all the copyrights and works of music already the property of the firms Giudici & Strada, Demarchi, Tedeschi, Trebbi and Mariani. On that date, the catalogue of the company amounted to approximately 22,000 items. After the war, however, the company went bankrupt: the archive material was taken over by the Banca Cattolica di Sant’Antonino of Piacenza, which in previous years had made a conspicuous loan to Ferrari. In 1928 the Banca Cattolica donated this material to the library of the Conservatory of Piacenza, material that was discovered and inventoried in 1998.
The archive material - of which this paper gives a detailed inventory - consists of autograph scores, manuscript copies, printed and manuscript arrangements, separate parts relative to operas property of the publishing house. The authors mainly represented include E. Petrella, A. Ponchielli, Lauro Rossi, A. Cagnoni, F. von Flotow, A. Smareglia. The study of the various typologies of the musical material in this archive, supported by research on contemporary periodicals (in particular, the "Paganini") and on the papers and correspondence of the publishing house, has furthermore made it possible to document the various aspects of the work of the publishers and of their relations with the musicians. In this connection, some registers preserved in the archive have proved of particular interest, providing information on the acquisitions of the copyright of various operas.